British Empire Article

by Reverend Dudley Fox
The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
Berhala Island
The Rajah Brooke turned idly to starboard, to enter the port of Sandaken from the Suluk Sea. It was early morning, the sea was glassy, and there was every indication that the day would be a scorcher. Town and harbour alike were coming to life. Some of the First Class passengers were already on deck, deck passengers were beginning to jockey for places with a view to landing, and despite the distance between ship and shore friends on the jetty were already beginning to wave.

The ship slipped slowly past Berhala Island, gliding towards one of the two berths on her starboard bow. Sandaken harbour is vast: big enough to have afforded shelter to the whole of the pre-1914 Royal Navy. It lies on the East Coast of Sabah, the former British North Borneo, facing the southernmost Philippines. It serves as the capital of the Sandakan Residency, with its population of over 80,000: the timber which is the Residency's principal export goes out through it, and virtually all the area's needs come in through it. Although razed to the ground by the Japanese in 1945 it had been largely restored; and as the Rajah Brooke moved towards her berth, the red-roofed buildings crowding down to the water's edge showed no signs of the events of 19 years before.

For this was 1964. Recent political developments in Malaysia had led to a demand for expatriate officers with knowledge of that country volunteering to serve on a two years contract with the new administration, until such time as indigenous officers should return from courses in Britain, Australia or New Zealand to replace them. Having had many happy years of service in Malaya and Singapore, I had put in my name, and rejoiced to find myself appointed District Officer, Sandakan. So this was my home and responsibility for the next two years which I was surveying from seaward in the cool of the early morning as the Rajah Brooke nosed her way in after her coastal voyage of 250 miles from Kota Kinabalu, the former JesseIton.

Sandakan is a gazetted point of entry but as the ship had called at Kota Kinabalu and had not left territorial waters it was not necessary to obtain Immigration clearance. Just prior to my arrival at Sandakan there had been an incident which, fortunately, turned out to be amusing. A small ship had arrived from the islands adjacent to the Philippines. The small vessel was crowded with people all desirous of entering Sabah, but none of them held travel documents or any form of permission to enter the country. The immigration officials refused permission to land; and this had resulted in much shouting and appeals from the passengers, all of which went unheeded by the officials.

When it appeared that the people had accepted the decision, the boat cast off and proceeded a short way in to the harbour and stopped. Within minutes there was pandemonium; screams and shouting from the boat brought everyone within earshot running to the quayside. The boat was sinking. Immediately rescue operations were put in hand; small craft pulled out towards the sinking boat; women and children were bundled into the rescue boats; those that could swim had jumped over the side and were making for the harbour steps. It was all over in a matter of minutes, rescue complete, no casualties, all safely landed.

I never learned who was responsible for the idea that the illegal immigrants should be housed in a camp on the edge of the town, the camp to be next door to the Immigration Office. From then on, of course, the care and protection of the Illegal Immigrants was a charge on the Immigration Department - a Federal Department - and therefore no cost to the State of Sabah.

While I was collecting my luggage in readiness to go ashore, another District Officer - designate came aboard and made himself known to me. He was destined for Beluran, some fifty miles into the interior from Sandakan. We reckoned that it was too early to pay our official calls on the Resident, so we breakfasted, together at the Lodge, which stands on a hill above the Residency, and commands one of the finest views in all Sabah. We found that we had much in common, including a similar background in Malaya, a love of that country and its people, and a command of its language. Although we both realised that our time in Sabah was to be sadly limited by the very terms of our contracts, we both looked forward eagerly to grappling with the tasks concerning which we had been briefed before leaving Kota Kinabalu.

I duly reported to the Resident and after the preliminaries he informed me that he had included me in an invitation for that evening. The invitation was from the Board of the local prawn-packing factory, and I distinctly remember that one of the items on the menu was raw fish. Being unable to think up a reasonable excuse, I went along and spent a very interesting evening.

The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
St Michael's (Anglican) Church
On the Sunday morning I went down to look round the office and the area surrounding the Government office. At the side of the road, just outside the Police Station and immediately facing the Government Office, there was a small monument in the shape of a Christian Cross. I walked over to read the inscriptions cut into the stone and spent quite some time looking at this monument. There was very little room left for additional names; it was a monument to District Officers who had lost their lives in varying circumstances while on duty. The Japanese had not destroyed this monument, although they had razed the town to the ground. It occurred to me that the official who had sited that monument in that location had a sense of humour, and while there was little room left for additional carving - well, my surname does not take up much room. The rest of the day was spent quietly and in the evening I went to St Michael's (Anglican) Church on the hill.

Monday morning: I meet with myy predecessor in office and go through the taking over / handing over procedure. The handing-over notes were complete, and I felt that the D.0. was anxious to be off to his new appointment as Assistant Secretary 'G' in the Secretariat, I suggested that he should now leave me to study the admin papers, and that perhaps he wished to attend to last minute preparations concerning his removal to Kota Kinabalu.

As I sat and went through the papers, my mind was grappling with how and where to start; and, most important, with whom would I be closely involved in the matter of development. The briefing had been clear on this point: the whole of the peripheral area of Sandakan was planned for development right up to the 30th mile on the Telupid road.

Looking back to that Monday morning, I now realise how fortunate I was in the subordinate staff who were in the District Office at that time. They have all gone on to senior appointments in the Service, and they were keen! Keenness, coupled with education and training, and you have the ingredients for moulding an excellent unit. As I sat and wondered, there was a knock on the door and in walked a fellow-expatriate, with a pleasant, almost shy smile, removing a small blue denim-type sun hat; and as he held out his hand he introduced himself as, "Bruce Sandilands, your Land Development Officer". Bruce was accompanied by one of his own team. I was immediately struck by the obvious fitness of both of them. Bruce was wearing shorts, open necked shirts and his jungle boots. He was stocky and sturdy, and gave the appearance of a man who spends a lot of time in the open air. He did.

Bruce was in his early forties and during the war he had served with the Royal Marines. Though briefly in Crete, he had spent most of his active service in Egypt and Palestine, In 1948 Bruce entered the Colonial Service. In December of 1949 he became a District Surveyor with the department of Lands and Surveys in North Borneo. In March 1955 he joined the Directorate of Overseas Surveys in the U.K., and was sent back to Sabah, where he served mainly in remote jungle areas for six years from January 1956. It has indeed often been said that few if any knew the Sabah jungle as well as Bruce Sandilands. From 1962, he served in different areas as a Land Settlement and Development officer. Thus we met in early 1964.

Within the first hour of our meeting Bruce was putting me in the picture - there was a map on the wall of the office, covering the whole of the wall and showing in detail the various lots of timber land to be developed. It was a very detailed briefing and Bruce had covered the whole of the district adding his own knowledge of the physical problems in particular areas. Finally, he advised me that there were some fifteen people experiencing hardship from lack of roofing for their houses, and from raids on their cash crops by wild pig. We agreed that this would be our first task, and Bruce arranged for some of his men to meet at the 17th mile on the Saturday morning.

The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
Parang
Bruce not only knew the Jungle but in knowing it, he respected it. He had his own ideas about the type of men he wanted in his gang; and there was a type of discipline amongst them that comes from knowing that life or death may depend on any one of them being able to do the right thing at any given moment. These men were Ibans, favourites for jungle work, and they never moved without a Parang in their scabbard; all else was secondary to this requirement. Ibans armed with the large Parang, which is a giant~shaped knife usually carried in a bamboo scabbard, can exist in any jungle and live off the land. When I first saw them sitting outside the office where they had been waiting patiently for Bruce, they seemed to be uncomfortable at being so near to a town. They were eager to be back to the Ulu (jungle) and there was an obvious close link between these Ibans and their Tuan, a quiet conversational tone between them, not orders; and away they went, back to the 30 mile area.

There have not been many Officers of the Bruce Sandilands type in the Colonial Service; and if entry, in his case, had depended on academic prowess alone, the Service would have lost the great contribution that this humble man brought to Sabah. But Providence does have a say in the affairs of men; and Bruce came to Sabah and, with the aid of his beloved Ibans, built his own Bungalow at 30 mile Telupid Road.

About that bungalow: I should perhaps point out that the Telupid 'road' was nothing more than a dirt track or trace along which the P.W.D. would in due course lay a tar-macadam road; but, at the time when the bungalow was built, this track was closed to all traffic during the monsoon period. Bruce had decided that he could not afford to be cut off from the 30-mile area and obtained permission from the Resident of the day to build his bungalow on the North side of the road. A sum of money was voted to Bruce, no doubt as Land Development Officer, in the estimates, and the bungalow was built. I remember him saying how he had arrived at the side of the road and selecting the site, and had set up a temporary shelter until the main bungalow was ready. The timber was felled in the adjacent jungle for frame, flooring and walls, and the broad Nipah leaves were used in the same way that the Natives used them for covering the roof. Use had also been made of the ubiquitous corrugated metal sheeting. The choice of this particular site was to prove of strategic importance in the years to come, almost as if Bruce had been guided by prophetic sight.

Before my arrival at Sandakan, Bruce had shared with a colleague a Government quarter near the town: one room and the use of the facilities when it was necessary for him to stop overnight. After my arrival, unaccompanied by family, he spent his time at my bungalow, where "development" was the main topic of conversation. Bruce was dedicated to the development of Sabah, and his enthusiasm was infectious.

On Saturday morning, accompanied by Henry Brand, Bruce's No. 2, and two of the 'gang', we set off for the 17th mile stone and there met Bruce as previously agreed. Bruce had brought the Headman of the village to meet the new District Officer, and here again it was obvious that Bruce was on excellent terms with the locals at 17 m.s. Someone had thought to bring a camera, and I am glad to say that I have a photograph of that 'Squad' just before we set off in to the jungle to visit the people whom Bruce had spoken of to me.

At first I thought that it was going to be quite a trek and although we were properly dressed for the journey, I had certain misgivings which I had kept to myself. For instance, it was perfectly obvious that Bruce and company were fit and used to this sort of thing. Was I going to be able to keep up with them?

My luck was in; just after we had crossed the river and moved in for a short distance, we came upon an old logging rail track which the logging contractor had left behind. This really proved to be a boon. We were able to walk on the sleepers; and when we came to the gaps where sleepers had fallen out, we were able to walk on the rails across the undulating ground. This was a tremendous help, since the ground in Sabah is very slinky and without grit of any kind. To walk and slip all over the place can prove to be very trying, as I was to discover on other occasions.

When we approached the clearing, Bruce waited for me to catch up; and as we entered the people came out of their huts and, on seeing Bruce, gave shouts of welcome and came forward to shake his hand. During this sincere welcome from all the families, I remember noticing a peculiar method of security in the erection of their houses. The floors were well above ground level, and in order to enter the house it was necessary to ascend by way of a narrow piece of timber which had been cut from a jungle roller (type of sapling) and, which in turn had notches cut at intervals, one above the other. At night this piece of timber was taken up into the house. When the introductions had been made and the usual courtesies dispensed with, we went to inspect the clearing.

Although there were only a few able bodied men in the group, they had succeeded in clearing an area of some fifteen acres and, in the words of people who are concerned with reclaiming land from the jungle, they had had a 'Good Burn'. There were still a few large stumps to be cleared, but on the whole the area had been cleared for planting. The 'Cash' crops had been planted and the ubiquitous Maize was struggling to grow. But the wild pig had been active, and it was obvious that, without help, the pig would soon destroy all cultivation.

The situation was as Bruce had described it; and after inspecting the whole area we made notes of what was required, and arranged for the men of the village to come out to 17 m.s. and collect the stores.

At the time of this visit Malaysia was engaged in confrontation with Indonesia, and movement between the two countries had been curtailed. The island of Borneo is divided between Malaysia and Indonesia: and today it is shown on the Map as Sabah to the North and Kalimantan to the south. Before confrontation many people of Indonesian Nationality had settled in what was British North Borneo and little or no attention had been paid to them. When we returned to Sandakan late that day I remarked to Bruce that I had been very surprised to find that the people we had seen that day were Indonesian. As I look back, I now know that I was seeing the real Bruce Sandilands: his reply was made with that slow quiet smile, a slight shrug of the shoulders: "Indonesians, they are people".

This was the distinguishing characteristic of Bruce: his genuine concern for people, especially the indigenous people of the country, and the fact that these people in that particular clearing were Indonesian made no difference. They were "people", trying to make a home in the jungle, and they needed help. Who they were; what they were; what colour; what denomination; they were"people" striving to do for themselves.

I have said that "30 mile" was a strategic area. As well as being a natural Road Head, there was also access to a main river in use by Loggers and travellers to the Beluran District. It was Bruce who first brought it to my attention that a landing stage was essential for all users of this river; and, coincidentally, a manager of one of the estates called at the District Office at about the same time asking for such a landing stage to be built.

The landing stage was erected, and soon became known as "the 30 mile river point". From here it was possible to make quick progress towards the Labuk and Sugut in the N.E. of the territory. Moving away from the Landing Stage to the North the river flowed towards the Suluk Sea; and by changing course to the N.W. one was soon in the Beluran District where, amongst other pioneer developments, Cadbury were experimenting with the growing of Cocoa.

It may seem incredible, but all of this was happening as late as from 1963 onwards; and the man who knew most about the whole area, in so far as travel was concerned, was Bruce Sandilands.

During 1964-65, the Government decided that the five year development plan referred to as "The Red Book" should be implemented in Sabah. The idea was popular; and every District had to prepare a 'Red Book' with a duplicate which was to be retained in the Government Offices at Kota-Kinabalu. The preparation of the 'Red Book' was a team effort by every Government department in the District, and the delineation of areas and boundaries was the responsibility of the District Surveyor. Many meetings were convened and suggestions considered for entry into this most important 'Red Book'. Bruce Sandilands played an important part at those meetings; and if and when a new town appears at the 30 mile area, the following were included in the Sandakan 'Red Book': Clinic; School; Shopping Centre; Church, Muslim Surau.

The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
Kinabatangan River
The two main rivers bounding Sandakan were the Labuk to the North and the Kinabatangan to the South. The area between the Labuk and Kinabatangan Rivers is on average fifty miles wide, a rough and tangled country of mountain, jungle and turbulent streams. The making of an accurate survey called for a high degree of technical skill and almost unlimited physical endurance in an exacting climate.

Both rivers are subject to sudden and alarming rise in level brought about by the heavy tropical rain. Water pours in off the side of the foothills; and when the deluge is sustained the level of the rivers can rise by up to eighteen feet overnight. This does cause severe flooding, particular? ly in the early months of the year, but it is possible to be surprised before or after the anticipated period. The type of river craft used in negotiating the river varies, but perhaps the most popular are the "Jongkangs" or "Gobangs". Referring to the latter, this name is brought about by what are called "loan words" from the English Language. The craft is a locally made boat, but with the advent of the out-board engine the transom is strengthened in order to support the out-board engine, fixed at the rear of the craft. The normal engine is a 6 h.p. 'Jap' which propels the craft along with a "phut phut" noise, clearly recognisable when heard in the distance. Hence the name given by the local Natives, "Go Bang".

The other type of craft, the "Jongkang", is the more suitable for going on a tour that may keep you away from the station for some time. First of all you have to be able to carry the fuel necessary for the out-board engine to take you there and back. This can be stored under the floor-boards of the craft. There is also room for stores and equipment. At the end of the day's run, it is possible to make ready to spend the night on the craft by putting up mosquito netting at each end of a Nipah Leaf roofing, which serves the dual purpose of protecting you from the rain or the sun during the journey.

So much for travel by the main water-ways and the craft used in Eastern Sabah; but it has to be emphasised that this mode of travel is the easiest, and nearly always brings you to the peoples settled round the coastline and along the rivers of Sabah. For men concerned with Estates and development of the interior, the only other method was walking. Prior to taking up his appointment as Land Development Officer, Bruce had been involved in the siting of Trig points, which is a fundamental requirement in map making.

The survey teams would make their way as far as possible by river; and then they would remove the craft from the water, high enough to be safe until their return. From here on in to the jungle they would be dependent on compass readings. The objective would be a previously determined mountain top. The team operating in the Kinabatangan area would be making for a point giving a view to the North, while the team in the Labuk area would be making for a point giving a view to the South. To reach these points might take weeks. Most of the trek would be through virgin jungle requiring the constant use of the invaluable Parang. With luck you might come on streams which would give access to open space along the line you were following; but then you would have to leave and continue along the defined bearing. As you climb away from Sea Level, the route becomes more difficult and, worst of all, the ground in Sabah has one miserable fault: there is literally no grit in it as you slip and slide and catch hold of the ground, it simply oozes through your fingers.

Having achieved a few yards in difficult parts, you stop for a break and take stock of the leech problem. This invariably becomes a two-man job and each lights a cigarette. You never feel a leech alighting on your skin; and, as you struggle to make your ascent, you will not have seen them. But, there they are: stuck in, fat and bloated with your blood. The cigarette is drawn red hot, applied to the horror, and it drops off. Those that you do not see, your partner attends to, and you must not forget to take great care of the most intimate and sensitive parts of the body.

Normally the day is from Sun-up to Sun-down: by 7 pm it will be dark. Therefore a suitable site must be chosen in the late afternoon for a camp, and the essential camp chores attended to, stores and equipment made secure. Personal discipline is of the essence, and the Iban on these expeditions was a natural. The new day would dawn; and without fuss the team would move out and on, upwards to the top.

When the top is reached, care must be exercised in the choice of camping site. The view must be unrestricted. If the weather is doubtful, with low clouds or mist, patience is an absolute "must". Each night at a pre-arranged time a signal lamp would be used and the call sign would be flashed intermittently, hoping for contact to be established. This could take days, depending on how soon the teams reached their objectives, for it was not certain that they could arrive at the top of their respective mountains at the same time of day, or even on the same day. But, suddenly, there is an answering flash and the exchange of information begins. The technical data are recorded carefully, and in a comparatively short time all that is required on this occasion is completed. A further step in triangulation has taken place, and now the return journey must begin. Once more one must have recourse to compass and back bearings, so as to arrive accurately at the place where the boat was secured.

Sabah is in fact not unlike a large triangle in appearance on the map of what was once country of some 30,000 square miles is populated in areas following the coastline with ranges of mountains making up the Interior, you get an idea of the primitive and therefore difficult problems facing those survey teams. There is a total absence of bird life except for an occasional Horn Bill, (The Sacred Bird of the Murut Tribe) and a large eagle-like type, seen from time to time. There is no big game such as tiger, but there is a small greyish leopard referred to as the snow-leopard; again, very rare, and in the lower region, is the orang utan. In fact the surveyors could well he the first men to set foot on the mountain since creation.

"Sandilands Chits": these were notes of authority issued by Bruce to natives to develop and occupy 5 acres of logged land. They caused quite a rumpus in the Head Office of Lands and Survey, and in the Resident's Office at Sandakan. The matter was referred to me for investigation.

The emphasis from 1963 onwards was on "development". A major scheme had been projected in the Sandakan District named "The Sungei Manilla Scheme". The area chosen for this scheme extended over 12,000 acres of good timber land, and was to be let on tender. The successful contractor was to take the logs off the land under the supervision of the Forestry Department, and at the same time to construct roads of not less than 40 feet width. The method of logging was stipulated so that the top soil would not be ruined.

The L.D.O. (Bruce Sandilands) was responsible for the cutting of rentis (a small pathway around the perimeter of the surveyed area which would stand out clearly in aerial photographs). In addition to the periphery, the L.D.O. would also cut the rentis showing where the roads were to be constructed.

It was during this period of operations that the 'Chits' began to appear. It was also noticeable that the 5 acre areas were nowhere near projected schemes, and that all commercial timber had been removed. The likelihood of anyone, other than the Natives to whom Bruce gave his 'Chits', wishing to go on the land and develop it as a homestead, was very remote indeed. Knowing Bruce, there had to be an explanation.

At about this time it was suggested by the Resident that I should pay a visit to Semporna. Semporna, a beautiful District lay further down the East Coast of Sabah. It was ahead of Sandakan in planting oil palm as a main crop. The soil was known to be shallow and based on lava rock. I left for Semporna, and took the Development Policy File so that I could study the minutes and earliest appreciations.

When I reached the implementation stage, I was amazed to find a circular instructing that, "Natives were to be given five acres of land as a homestead". Granted, the file was voluminous and the circular was near the bottom of the file; "but at no stage had it been cancelled. On my return to Sandakan I drew the attention of the relevant authority to this extant circular. It was obvious that the contents had either never been fully circulated, or that they had been forgotten. In any case, the idea had probably been expedient in the initial stages and the cancellation of the instructions had been overtaken by the Self-Governing political situation which had resulted in the departure of many ex-patriate officers on pension.

In defence of Bruce, it would be difficult, in view of the nature of his duties and his long absences from the office, to be up to date with change in policy if not brought specifically to his attention. It is of passing interest that those seniorofficers who sat in office every day had failed to note the existence of that circular.

Bruce left Sabah in 1971 and took up employment as a Surveyor with The Greater London Council. On the 17th October, 1975? he returned to Sabah as a District Surveyor on Contract. In spite of the four year absence, it was typical of Bruce to be on his way within three weeks to Keningau, the Central Residency in Sabah. Here he made arrangements to proceed towards Sepulot in the South and from there in to 'No man's land', the Pensiangan area and south-east towards Banbangan. With hindsight, this is country where Bruce should have waited until he had his Ibans together again; but perhaps after such a long absence, they would have scattered, and it would have taken longer than three weeks to re-call them.

The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
Sepulot
From Sepulot, Bruce entered the jungle and was engaged on duty from the 5th November until the 24th, when he was air-lifted by helicopter from the immediate Kalimantan Border in the South and taken to a landing pad which was being used as a forward supply area. After a week's rest, he once more set off with four of his new team on December 1st, aiming for Bambangan. The dense unknown jungle in this particular area must have been causing great difficulty; and four days later, on the 5th December, Bruce decided to return to the Forward Supply Point.

It was not the jungle which was turning him back. He realised that he was running a fever and suffering from "Singapore Foot". This meant that he could only move slowly. He gave instructions to the men with him to proceed and open a path for a certain distance when he would catch up with them. They were not "his" Ibans. They went ahead, but they did not wait. They never met again.

It is now known that the real tragedy arose from a series of breakdowns; and, as usual, there was no human habitation within miles of the area where he was working. There was a breakdown of the Helicopter Service and non-functioning of a radio post, the result being that nearly two weeks elapsed before news came through to Kota-Kinabalu about his disappearance. Even then, it took some time before search parties could reach the particular area in which Bruce was last seen.

There was very good evidence that he was still alive, some weeks after his disappearance, from the remains of nuts and fruits cut by his parang, in an uninhabited area. The search parties were six in number, made up of six men to each party. They were backed up by helicopters, but visibility from the air would be almost nil, as the ground is completely blanketed by the tropical forest. These men stuck to their task until, on the 10th of February, Bruce was found dead beside a river. The discovery was made three days after the arrival of his brother, Douglas, who had gone out to Sabah to help in the search.

In spite of the fever and the agony of that festering which is called 'Singapore Foot', Bruce had stuck to his old discipline: "when lost, make for the river." He stayed by the river, his parang by his side to the last, existing on nuts, grass and water. When his body was found, there were some letters beside it and a diary which Bruce had entered up to the 22nd December. The diary is now with the family in Sussex and I quote the following extracts, the final entries:

The Man of the Ulu: Bruce Sandilands
All Saints' Cathedral
"Seems I have risked my life for Sabah once too often".

"If I die I have given my life to Survey for which I have always worked in the belief my skills were best used that way to Service of God and fellow men".

"I will have been relieved of the trials of old age".

"Prayers are a link with Heaven and earth and I hope you will from time to time remember me. As to your futures ... I wish you all that they will be directed to God's Will and be as happy and rewarding as ray life has been".

"Now that I am weak and feel I must say ray last farewells. I am in good spirit, praying and praising God .... The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Love of God, and the Fellowship of The Holy Spirit be with us ever more".

Bruce was buried in the Cemetery at Kota Kinabalu after a service held in the Cathedral. He had been awarded the O.B.E. for his service in Sabah, and there is talk of a Memorial being erected to his memory in the shape of a Rest House overlooking the Sensurin Jungle.

Bruce was a nephew of the 13th Lord Torphichen, head of a family which has been settled in Clydesdale since the 14th century.

Although his roots remained in Lanarkshire, and although he was first and foremost a Scotsman, it was to Sabah that he gave the best years of his life, and the people of Sabah that he served as a humble and witnessing Christian. It is among them that his true memorial is to be found.

Sarawak Map
1961 Map of North West Sarawak and Borneo
Colony Profile
Sarawak Colony Profile
North Borneo Colony Profile
Obituary
Bruce Sandilands
Further Reading
Pit Polo Pulpit
by Reverend G D A Fox
Reverend G D A Fox


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