Sixteenth Century Timeline of British Empire

1497John Cabot reaches Labrador, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland from Bristol. He reports on seeing huge fishing grounds off the cost of Newfoundland and brings back an Eskimo to show his sponsor, Henry VIIRising in CornwallVasco de Gama sets sail from Lisbon to find a sea route to India round the southern cape of Africa discovered by Diaz in 1487Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Arriving in Canada
1498John Cabot sets off on expedition to look for North West Passage but is never seen or heard of again
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Columbus and Isabella
Vasco de Gama discovers sea route to India as he arrives at Calicut on the Malabar Coast, Columbus' third voyage discovers Trinidad and the Orinoco River, Spanish settle 200 colonists in Hispaniola and bring back 600 Caribs to Spain to be sold into slavery, Louis XII becomes King of France Erasmus of Rotterdam teaches at Oxford
1499
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Vasco de Gama
Black Death epidemic in LondonVasco de Gama returns to Portugal with pepper, nutmeg, cloves and cinnamon, Venice goes to War with Ottoman Empire, Swiss gain notional independence at Peace of Basel, Amerigo Vespucci explores South AmericaOxford University institutes degrees in Music for first time, First political cartoons appear in Europe lampooning French-Italian War
1500Portuguese navigator Gaspar de Corte-Real makes landfall on North America, Columbus is arrested for tyrranical and barbaric rule as governor of Hispaniola, Pedro Cabal reaches India to load up with spices but on his return journey he is blown off course onto Brazil which he claims for PortugalMusic printed with movable type for first timeFirst recorded Caesarian operation
1501Henry VII declines invitation from Pope to lead a Crusade against TurksJoao de Nova discovers St Helena, Vasco de Gama blockades Red Sea and so disrupts Egyptian trade routes and elevates Lisbon's control of spice trade, Amerigo Vespucci makes second voyage to South America but for the Portuguese this time, Gaspar de Corte-Real returns to North America and takes 57 Indians as slaves however his ship sinks on return voyage with the loss of everyone on board, Spanish colonists import slaves from Africa for the first timeMichelangelo carves DavidMichelangelo's Works
1502First voyage of Anglo-Portuguese syndicate to North America by Fernandes on behalf of Henry VIIThe Prince of Wales Arthur Tudor diesSafavid dynasty comes to power in Persia, Queen Isabella expels all Moors who refuse to convert to Christianity, Columbus makes fourth and final voyage to New World discovering St. Lucia, Honduras and Costa Rica, Amerigo Vespucci returns and his account leads to his name being used to describe the New Continent, Montezuma II ascends to the throne of the Aztecs, Vasco de Gama sets up Portuguese colony at Cochin, India
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
1502 Map Showing New World for First Time
Peter Heinlein constructs the Nuremberg Egg regarded as the first watch
1503 Henry Tudor betrothed to Arthur's widow Catherine of ArgaonSpanish establish a Colonial Office in Madrid to deal with American affairs, The Spanish governor of Hispaniola seeks permssion to begin regular importing of slaves to deal with labour shortage, Venice sign peace treaty with Turks, Zanzibar becomes a Portuguese colonyMona Lisa started by Leonardo Da VinciNicolaus Copernicus made doctor of canon law at Ferrara, Christopher Columbus observes bouncing ball of rubber for first time
1504Henry VII places guilds and trade companies under Crown supervisionColumbus returns from his final voyage of exploration, Queen Isabella dies, Treaty of Lyon sees French cede control of Naples to Spanish, Venetians send ambassadors to Sultan of Turkey to propose construction of a canal at Suez to attempt to win back trade lost to the Portuguese
1505 Henry denounces marriage contract with Catherine of AragonCeylon discovered by Portuguese, Portuguese send Francisco de Almeida to India as its first viceroyPope Julius II calls Michelangelo to Rome, Raphael's Madonna and Child Enthroned with the SaintsScipione del Ferro solves a form of cubic equation
1506 Treaty of WindsorDeath of Columbus in relative obscurity, Miccoli Macchiavelli creates first national army in Italy with the Florentine militiaClassical Sculpture Laocoon unearthed in Rome
1507
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
First Map to use 'America'
Publication of Alvise Cadamosto's account of his exploration of Gambia as Navigazioni
1508Claims that Sebastian Cabot explored North America as far as Hudson's Bay whilst searching for North West Passage Juan Ponce de Lyon explores and colonises Puerto Rico, Portuguese begin colonisation of Mozambique, Portuguese fleet sunk by combined Egyptian and Gujarati fleetPope Julius II commissions Michelangelo to paint Sistine Chapel
1509 Henry VII dies and is replaced by Henry VIIISpanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda explores Columbia, Battle of Diu in Indian Ocean sees Portuguese fleet destroy a Muslim fleet and so seizes control of Spice Trade, France goes to war with Venice, Spanish bishop Bartolome de Las Casas prosposes that each Spanish settler bring their own slaves from Africa rather than attempting to enslave local Indians Lucas van Leyden's The Temptation of St. Anthony, Alexander Barclay's Ship of FoolsFirst attempts to restrict right to practice medicine to licensed doctors
1510
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Death of Almeida
Henry VIII has his two of his father's ministers beheaded for misuse of Crown revenuesAfonso de Albuquerque establishes colony at Goa for Portuguese, Explorers sail up to CharlestonDeath of Botticelli and GiorgioneLeonardo da Vinci designs horizontal water wheel which becomes the basis of the water turbine
1511Henry VIII begins reforms of England's NavyHenry VIII joins Holy League Pope joins with Venice to drive French out of Italy, Albuquerque captures Malacca and discovers route to Amboina further cementing Portuguese control of Spice Trade, Spanish forces under Diego Velazquez gain control of Cuba, African slaves begin to arrive in Cuba especially as native Carib population is reducing alarmingly quickly upon contact with the EuropeansTitian's Triumph of ChristErasmus becomes professor of Greek at Cambridge
1512English fishermen begin to use Newfoundland fishing grounds, They often go ashore to dry the fish and revictual before returning to England to sell themEnglish Navy begins to build double deck ships of over 70 guns and 1,000 tons, England goes to War with France (until 1514)Spanish import more slaves into Hispaniola, The Portuguese abandon KilwaSistine Chapel completedCopernicus' Commentariolus explains that the earth and the other planets turn around the Sun.
1513
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Portuguese Fort at Calicut
Battle of Flodden sees English defeat Scots, James IV is killedVasco de Balboa becomes first European to sight the Pacific Ocean from the Darien Isthmus, Portuguese explorer Jorge Alvarez reaches Canton in China, Portuguese discover Reunion and Mauritius, Portuguese establish factory at CalicutMichelangelo's Moses
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
World Map, 1513
1514The Corporation of Trinity House founded in London to help provide navigational help for ships entering and leaving the River Thames in anticipation of increased tradeLouis XII marries Henry's sister Mary Tudor confirming Anglo-French trucePope Leo X claims 'Not only the Christian religion but nature cries out against slavery and the slave trade', 1,500 Spanish settlers arrive in Panama, Santiago founded by Diego de Velazquez de Cuellar, The Pineapple arrives in Europe for first time, Titian's The Tribute Money
1515
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Portuguese at Hormuz
Margaret Tudor Queen regent of Scotland flees to England, Anglo-French Peace Treaty signed, Thomas Wolsey appointed Cardinal and Lord Chancellor of EnglandPortuguese Afonso de Albuquerque takes Hormuz at the entrance of the Persian Gulf however on his return to Goa he discovers that he has been dismissed, Spanish found Havana, Spanish explorer Juan de Solis discovers the Plate Estuary, Spanish explorer Juan de Bermudez discovers Bermuda, Death of Louis XII of France who is replaced by Francis I, French defeat Swiss and Venetians at Maiganano before concluding peace treatyLateran Council forbids the printing of any books without the permission of the Catholic Church, Raphael appointed the Architect in Chief of St Peter's Rome, Erasmus' Education of a Christian Prince
1516 Princess Mary born to Henry VIII and Catherine of AragonFirst Sugar from New World is brought to Carlos I of Spain from Hispaniola, Indigo arrives in Europe for first time, Castilian Regent Jiminez forbids the importation of slaves into the colonies of Spain but King Carlos I ruling from Flanders continues to issue licences allowing the importation of slaves into the colonies, Ottomans defeat Egyptian Mamelukes at Battle of MarjdabikPeter Martyr's Decades about the discoveries of the New World
1517 Evil May Day Riots in London sees 60 rioters hangedMartin Luther posts 95 theses on door at Wittenberg, Portuguese found a factory at Columbo in Ceylon, Ottomans take Cairo, Coffee arrives in Europe for first time, Archduke Charles grants monopoly on slave trade to Florentine merchants, Spanish explorer Francisco de Cordoba discovers traces of Mayan civilisation in the Yucatan Flemish composer Heinrich Isaac dies, Seville Cathedral completed
1518 Peace of London between England, France, Emperor Maximilian I, Pope and Spain devised by Cardinal WolseyMartin Luther summoned to Diet of Augsburg but refuses to recant, Spanish import slaves to Hispaniola to cultivate Sugar Cane, Spanish explorer Juan de Grijalva explores coast of Yucatan and Mexico, Barbary States of Algiers and Tunis foundedTitian's Bacchanal, Porcelain arrives in Europe from AsiaSpectacles for the shortsighted are introduced, Royal College of Physicians in London is founded, Adam Riese publishes his first book on practical arithmetic
1519 Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator in service of Spain sets off to become the first to Circumnavigate the globe, Cortes brings Arabian horses from Spain to North American continent, Cortes takes Montezuma II prisoner and controls Aztec Empire through him, Spanish explorer Domenico de Pineda explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Vera CruzDeath of Leonardo da Vinci
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Spice Islands
1520 Henry meets Francois I at Calais at Field of Cloth of Gold, Henry VIII signs commercial treaty with French, Charles V Holy Roman Emperor visits Henry at DoverMartin Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X, Denmark invades Sweden, Ferdinand Magellan negotiates Straits of Magellan and enters the South Sea which he renames Pacific Ocean, Portuguese traders settle in China, Beginning of Anabaptist movement in GermanyTitian's The Worship of VenusParacelsus wanders through Europe
1521
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Death of Magellan
Henry VIII writes The Golden Book refuting Luther, Duke of Buckingham executed by Henry VIIIDiet of Wurms orders Luther to recant but he refuses, Ferdinand Magellan killed at Philippines, Belgrade falls to Ottomans, Tenochtitlan conquered by Cortes who kills Montezuma also, Francisco de Gordillo explores American Atlantic coastline up to South CarolinaBible translated into GermanManufacture of silk introduced to France
1522 Henry VIII joins war against FrenchPortuguese expelled from China blamed for increase in piracy, Slave Revolt in Hispaniola, Holy Roman Empire drives French out of Milan, Remnants of Magellan's expedition returns to Seville, Pascuel de Andagoya leads overland expedition from Panama to discover Peru, Francisco Montano climbs Mount Popocatepetl in Mexico, Spaniard force arrives in Guatemala, Turks take Rhodes from Knights of St JohnTitian's The ResurrectionDurer designs a flying machine for use in war
1523
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Seville
First Marine Insurance policies issued in Florence, Jamaica settlement founded by Spanish, Zwingli publishes 67 articles attacking Pope and transubstantiation, Two of Luther's followers burnt alive at BrusselsHolbein' ErasmusFitzherbert's Book of Husbandry first English manual on agriculture
1524 James V becomes King of ScotlandTreaty of Malmo confirms Swedish independence from Denmark, Giovanni de Verrazano discovers New York Bay and Hudson River, Protestant Princes in Germany meet at Ulm to defy Catholic Emperor Charles, Portuguese establish base at Aden, Spaniard Pedro de Alvarado conquers Mayans in GuatemalaDeath of Holbein the ElderPetrus Apianus' Cosmographia the first textbook on theoretical geography
1525 Hops brought to England for first time from Artois, Peace between France and EnglandFirst use of muskets at Pavia by Spanish as they help Germans defeat French and Swiss, Moghuls invade Punjab, Albert von Brandenburg assumes title Duke of PrussiaTitian's VanitasDurer compiles first German manual on Geometry
1526 Anglo-Scottish peace treaty signedBattle of Mohacs sees Hungarians defeated by Turks, Congolese King complains to Portuguese that their merchants are taking his subjects to sell as slaves in Brazil, Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro explores Gulf of Guayaquil where he is greeted by Incas as an incarnation of a previous king of theirs, Battle of Panipat sees Moghuls defeat Lord of Delhi and take Agra, Portuguese vessels visit New Guinea for first timeHolbein the Younger visits England for first time
1527Sir Hugh Willoughby searches for a North East Passage through the Arctic Ocean, John Rut searches for North West PassageHenry VIII requests for dispensation to divorce Catherine of AragonSebastian Cabot explores Plate Estuary and builds fortifications of Santa Espirtu in Paraguay, Rome sacked by Holy Roman EmperorHolbein's Sir Thomas MoreParacelsus lectures on medicine at University of Basel
1528John Rut returns from Americas having explored the East Coast extensively but failing to find the longed for route to the OrientRiots in Kent as weavers protest against Wolsey's policy of changing principle wool trading port from Antwerp to Calais, Reformation arrives in Scotland, outbreaks of plagueParis becomes capital of France, Mombasa rebels against Portuguese rule, Giovanni Verrazzano killed by natives whilst on an expedition in Brazil, Augsberg banker Bartholomaus Welser gains permission to colonise Brazil, Siege of NaplesHolbein's The Artist's FamilyParacelsus' Die Kleine Chirurgia which is one of the earliest books on surgery
1529 Cardinal Wolsey removed by Henry VIIIFrancisco Pizarro granted Governor for Life of Peru, Venezuela and Colombia explored and settled by Welser of Augsburg, Ottomans conquer Algeria, Peace of Cambrai between France and Holy Roman Empire joined by England, Ottomans advance towards ViennaAltdorfer's Battle of IssusGiovanni Battista da Monte re-introduces concept of clinical examinations of patients at Padua
1530 Knights Hospitaller (Order of St John) settle in Malta, Antwerp exchange founded
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Welser's Army
Regnier Gemma Frisius suggests that longitude could be calculated by means of differences in times, Agricola's De re metallica treatise on minerology, Peter Martyr's Decades de orbe novo on the discoveries of the New World
1531
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Conquest of Peru Map
Henry VIII recognised as Supreme Head of Church of EnglandNicolas Villegagnon discovers the site of Rio de Janeiro, Francisco Pizarro marches from Panama to Peru with 300 conquistadors in order to conquer Inca Empire, Major Earthquake in LisbonParmigianino's Cupid Carving His BowThe Great Comet (later called Halley's) arouses waves of panic and concern
1532 Sugar Cane cultivated in Brazil, John Calvin brings Reformation to France, Charles X settles his Holy Roman Empire in Madrid, Pizarro seizes Inca King and paralyses Inca stateHolbein the Younger settles in England, Macchiavelli's The Prince published for first time (written in 1513)
1533 Henry VIII marries Anne BoleynPizarro has Inca king executed by strangling, Pizarro enters CuzcoHolbein's The AmbassadorsFirst use of Lunatic Asylums
1534Kildare RebellionHenry VIII breaks with Rome through Act of SupremacyJacques Cartier sets sail for France to discover new route to Cathay, Cartier discovers Gulf of St. Lawrence, Jesuit Order foundedAfter finishing Tomb of the Medici Michelangelo moves from Florence to Rome
1535
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Diego de Almagro Explores Chile
Sir Thomas More executed for failing to take the oath of the king's supremacy, London Exchange foundedDiego de Almagro heads south from Peru to explore Chile (until 1537), Charles V conquers Tunis and frees 20,000 Christian slaves, Jacques Cartier returns to St. Lawrence to site of Montreal but is frozen in for the winterHolbein's King Henry VIII Portrait, MIles Coverdale's First English Bible Diving Bell used for first time
1536 Dissolution of monasteries begin, Anne Boleyn executed, Henry marries Jane Seymour, Pilgramage of Grace risingsPedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires and searches for additional routes to Peru, Cortes discovers Lower CaliforniaHolbein the Younger made court painter to Henry VIIIIndia rubber mentioned for the first time
1537 Death of Jane Seymour, Pilgramage of Grace rising put downPapal Bull of Paul III prohibits enslavement of New World Indians, Gustavus of Sweden ends the Hanseatic League's Baltic monopoly Niccolo Fontana intiates the science of ballistics
1538 Pope calls on all Christians to attack and destroy the English kingDestruction of relics and shrinesOttomans take Yemen and Aden, Bogota founded by Gonzalo Jimenez de Queseda, Holy League goes to war with OttomansTitiian's The Venus of UrbinoMercator uses North America on his map for first time
1539English begin coastal fort construction project as France and Holy Roman Empire form anti-English LeagueMarriage treaty for Henry VIII to marry Anne of ClevesHernando de Soto explores Florida, Marcos de Niza explores Arizona and New Mexico, Potatoes arrive in Spain from QuitoFirst Christmas Tree at Strasbourg CathedralAmbroise Pare pioneers manufacture of artificial limbs, Olaus Magnus' Map of the World
1540 Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves, Marriage declared null and void, Thomas Cromwell executed, Henry VIII marries Katherine HowardPotato introduced to France, Pope Paul III recognises Jesuit Order, Hernando Cortes returns to Spain, Spanish explorer Hernando de Alarcon discovers River Colorado, Lopez de Cardenas discovers Grand Canyon, Dutch sailor Jon Greenlander lands in Greenland and discovers last Norse colonist lying dead outside his hut with a dagger in his hand, Treaty between Turkey and VeniceTitian's A Young EnglishmanEther produced from alcohol and Sulphuric Acid, Michael Servetus discovers pulmonary circulation of the blood
1541Henry VIII declares himself as King of Ireland and Head of the Irish ChurchJohn Knox leads Calvinist Reformation in ScotlandFrancisco de Orellana descends the Amazon River, Portuguese send troops to Ethiopia under Christopher de Gama to expel Somalis, Jacques Cartier makes third expedition to Quebec, Catholic missionary Francis X sails from Lisbon to Orient stopping at Mozambique, Malindi and Socotra, Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago in Chile, Francisco Pizarro completes conquest of Peru but is assassinated, Coronado's expedition from New Mexico to Texas, Oklahoma and then Kansas, Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Foundation of Santiago
Death of Paracelsus
1542
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Hernando de Soto and Indians
Henry VIII has Katherine Howard executed, Battle of Solway Moss sees Henry VIII defeat James V, Mary Queen of Scots comes to the throne of ScotlandSpanish settler travel 600 miles inland from Brazilian Coast to settle at Asuncion, Hernando de Soto dies on banks of Mississippi, Pople Paul III initiates Universal Inquisition in an attempt to halt the spread of the Protestant Reformation, Gonzalo Pizarro reaches mouth of Amazon River, Francis Xavier arrives in Goa Andreas Vesalius' De Fabrica on modern anatomy
1543 Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr, England goes to war with France (until 1545)First Portuguese arrive in Japan when a Chinese ship they were travelling on was ship wreckedDeath of Holbein the YoungerDeath of Nicolaus Copernicus, Spanish navigator submits a design for a steamboat
1544 English capture Boulougne and menace ParisSilver mines discovered at Potosi in Peru, Treaty of Crespy-en-Valois ends war between Holy Roman Empire and FranceMaster John's Mary IGeorg Agricola initiates the study of physical geology, Sebastian Munster's Cosmographia, Michael Stifel's Arithmetica integra
1545Mary Rose sinks in Solent as French fleet attempts to challenge English naval power in the Channel Council of Trent instigates reforms in Catholic Church but also escalates hostility to Protestant teachings, Mughal Emperor Humayun takes Kandahar, Charles V makes truce with TurksJohn Tavener diesFirst European botanical garden established in Padua, Geronimo Cardano works out Scipione del Ferro's equations of the third and fourth degree
1546 Peace of Ardres ends war between England and FranceMayans rise up against Spanish but are defeated, Portuguese troops in Diu in India rout a Gujarati army, Martin Luther dies, Attempts to discover El Dorado in Venezuela are suspendedMichelangelo designs the dome and undertakes the completion of St Peter's Basilica in RomeGerardus Mercator states that the earth has a magnetic pole, Valerius Cordus' Dispensatorium
1547 Sebastian Cabot returns to the employ of the English bringing valuable information on the Spanish and Portuguese explorations with himDeath of Henry VIII who is replaced by Edward VI, Scottish royalists besiege St. Andrews Castle to capture John Knox and send him into exileDeath of Francis I of France who is replaced by Henry IIThomas Cranmer's Book of HomiliesFirst predictions by Nostradamus
1548
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Mary Queen of Scots departs for France
Guinea pepper plant grown in England for first time, Mary Queen of Scots departs for FranceBattle of Xaquixaguane in Peru sees Gonzalo Pizzaro defeated by Pedro de la Gasca and executed, Turks occupy Tabriz in Persia, Silver mines of Zaatecar in Mexico opened up by SpanishSir Thomas Gresham founds seven professorships in London
1549 Thomas Seymour is executedThe Portuguese Governor of Brazil Thome de Souza founds Sao Salvador, Jesuit Missionaries arrive in South AmericaThomas Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer
1550Leix and Offaly Plantations in IrelandJohn Knox is released from slave galley by English, Treaty of Boulogne between France and England, English troops withdraw from Scotland, Sir William Cecil becomes Secretary of State, First recorded game of cricketInflation affects Europe as silver from South America begins to arrive in large quantitiesMichelangelo's The DepositionRhaeticus publishes his trignometric tables
1551 Thomas Wyndham sails to GuineaFirst licensing of alehouses and taverns in England and WalesTurks fail to capture Malta from Knights of St. John but go on to capture Tripoli, Henri II of France disavows Council of Trent and declares war on Charles V, Francis Xavier leaves Japan after converting 150 people to ChristianityPalestrina made director of music at St. Peter's in RomeKonrad von Gesner's Historiae animalium
1552 Thomas Wyndham brings back sugar and molasses from GuineaDuke of Somerset the former Lord Protector of England is executedPortuguese ship Sao Joao runs aground at Natal only 25 of the 600 make it to Sofola, Francis Xavier dies at Canton, Ivan IV begins conquests of Kazan and Astrakhan and turning the Volga into a Russian possessionTitian's Self PortraitBartolommeo Eustachio's Tabulae anatomicae detailing the Eustachian tube and valve
1553Richard Chancellor reaches Moscow by way of White Sea after attempt to find route to Cathay via a North East Passage comes to grief in the Arctic Ocean, Thomas Wyndham journeys to BeninEdward VI dies and is replaced by Mary, Lady Jane Grey had been claimed as Queen before being replaced by MarySultan Suleiman of Turkey makes peace with PersiaTitian's DanaeCamera Obscura is improved by Giambattista della Porta who adds a convex lens
1554John Locke's voyage to GuineaQueen Mary marries Philip of Spain, Lady Jane Grey executed, Princess Elizabeth sent to Tower of LondonFrance invades NetherlandsTrinity College Oxford founded, Titian's Venus and Adonis, Palestrina's first Book of Masses
1555 Queen Mary officially restores Catholicism as state religion of England, Beginning of persecution of Protestants including Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley Japanese pirates besiege Nanjing, Pope Paul IV orders that Rome's Jewish quarter be walled creating a Ghetto, French colony established in Bay of Rio de JaineiroMichelangelo's PietaTobacco brought for the first time to Spain from the Americas
1556 Thomas Cranmer burned at the stakeCharles V abdicates the throne of Spain to his son Philip and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother FerdinandSuleiman's Mosque in Constantinople is completed
1557 Mary Tudor declares war on France in support of her Spanish husbandPortuguese found Sao Paulo, Portuguese found Macao, Start of Livonian War, Both Spain and France suffer financial problems
1558England loses Calais its last possession on mainland Europe, John Dee becomes technical adviser to Muscovy CompanyMary Queen of Scots marries Dauphin of France, Mary I dies and replaced by Elizabeth
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
John Dee at the Court of Elizabeth
Bruegel's Landscape with the Fall of IcarusPortuguese introduce Snuff to Europe
1559 Coroniation of Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots becomes Queen of FranceTreaty of Cateau-Cambresis ends war between Spain and France, Henry II dies and rplaced by Francis II Realdo Colombo describes position and posture of embryo
1560
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Jenkinson's Map of Muscovy
An Alliance of native Indians destroys Spanish colonial settlements in Chile, A smallpox epidemic in Brazil severely reduces population of Portuguese colonies leading to an increase in demand for African slaves, Francis II of France dies and repaced by Charles IX, Conspiracy of Amboise, Turkish fleet defeats Spanish one off Tripoli, Madrid becomes capital of SpainPalladio completes Villa FoscariFirst Scientific Society founded at Naples by Giambattista della Porta
1561Anthony Jenkinson of the English Muscovy Company reaches Isfahan through Russia and attempts to initiate trade with PersiaMary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland from FranceEdict of Orleans halts persecution of Huguenots in FranceMichelangelo's St. Maria degli Angeli in RomeGabriele Fallopius' Observationes anatomicae
1562John Hawkins begins first expedition to trade slaves between West Africa and the New World, Shane O'Neill rebellion begins in IrelandEnglish troops occupy Le HavreMassacre of French Huguenots at Vassy initiating new round of Civil Wars, French Huguenot attempt to colonise FloridaTitian's The Rape of EuropaPierre Franco performs bladder and cataract operations
1563
British Empire in Plymouth
Hawkins' Crest of Arms
French regain Le Havre from EnglishPeace of Amboise ends first War of Religion in FranceJohn Foxe's Book of MartyrsAmbroise Pare's Cinq Livres de Chirurgie
1564English Merchant Adventurers granted Royal Charter, John Hawkins leaves on second voyage to the New World, Spanish closed Antwerp and prevented it from trading with EnglandPeace of Troye ends war between England and FranceSpanish occupy Philippines and build ManilaDeath of MichelangeloDeath of Andreas Vesalius
1565John Hawkins introduces tobacco and Sweet Potatoes to EnglandMary Queen of Scots marries Lord DarnleyPortuguese colony of Rio de Janeiro is founded, Ottoman's besiege MaltaPalladio's S. Giorgia Maggaiore in Venice, Titian's The Death of ActaeonRoyal College of Physicians allowed to carry out human dissections
1566
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Pre-Mercator Projection Map of Africa
David Rizzio murderedTurkish-Hungarian War renewsBruegel's St. John the BaptistDeath of Nostradamus
1567Francis Drake accompanies Lovell on third voyage to West Indies, Francis Drake accompanies Hawkins on Fourth Voyage to West IndiesLord Darnley found murdered, Mary Queen of Scots marries Earl of Bothwell She is forced to abdicate in favour of her sonPortuguese turn on French colonists in Brazil, Caracas is founded by Spanish in Venezuela, Alvaro Mendana de Neyra discovers Solomon IslandsTitian's The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence
1568
Francis Drake
Defeat of English at San Juan de Ulua
Mary Queen of Scots flees to England where she is imprisonedTreaty of Longjumeau ends Second Wars of Religion in FrancePieter Brueghel's The Peasant DanceCostanzo Varolio studies anatomy of the human brain, Gerardus Mercator devises cylindrical projection for charts
1569Return of Francis Drake and John Hawkins after defeat at San Juan de Ulua, Desmond Rebellion (until 1573)Rebellion in Northern EnglandMughals defeat Rajput power in India, Ottoman's attack Astrakhan but fail with heavy losses, Poland united with Lithuania with the Union of LublinDeath of Pieter BruegelMercator publishes his World Map projection with lines of longitude and latitude drawn as straight lines
1570Indian tribes of north-east America form the Iroquois ConfederationPapal Bull against heretic Elizabeth encouraging Catholics to 'deprive her of her throne', Earl of Moray assassinated succeeded as Regent of Scotland by Earl of LennoxPeace of St Germain-en-Laye ends third civil war in France with Huguenots gaining amnesty, Japanese open Nagasaki to trade with Portuguese, Turks sack Nicosia in Cyprus, Turks declare war on Venice, Peace of Stettin recognises Swedish independence from Denmark, Ivan the Terrible beings reign of Terror as he enters NovgorodPalladio's Four Books on ArchitectureAbraham Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the first modern atlas with 53 detailed maps
1571
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
The Tudor Family of Henry VIII
Earl of Lennos is killed and replaced as Regent of Scotland by Earl of MarCrimean Tartars sack Moscow, Spanish move administrative centre of Philippines from Cebu to Manila, Battle of Lepanto sees Ottoman Fleet defeated by Maritime League (Venice, Genoa, Malta and Spain)Titian's Christ Crowned with Thorns
1572Francis Drake beings attacks on Spanish possessions in the New WorldEarl of Northumberland executed for treason, Earl Mar dies and replaced as Regent of Scotland by Earl of MortonSt Bartholomew´┐Żs Day Massacre in France as Catholics slaughter Huguenots, Dutch War of Independence begins, Conquistadors capture Vilcabamba the last Inca stronghold and execute last Inca Sun KingWilliam Byrd and Thomas Tallis organists at the Chapel Royal, Thomas Tallis' Spem in aliumTycho Brahe discovers the 'New Star' in the Milky Way
1573Francis Drake sees Pacific Ocean from Panama Isthmus before raiding Nombre de Dios and seizing Spanish gold and silverSir Francis Walsingham becomes Secretary of StatePeace of Constantinople ends war between Turks and Venice, Spanish capture Haarlem
Francis Drake
Drake Sees Two Oceans
1574 , Charles IX dies and is replaced by Henry III, Spain loses Tunis to Turks, Juan Fernandez discovers islands in the Pacific Ocean which are named after himLongleat House completedConrad Dasypodius builds Strasbourg Clock
1575 Freedom from arrest is granted to Members of Parliament and their servantsLuanda is founded by Portuguese in Angola, Moghuls capture Bengal, Fighting in Netherlands and LowlandsEl Greco arrives in Spain from Crete, William Byrd and Thomas Tallis' Cantiones Sacrae Tycho Brahe builds observatory at Uraniborg, First European imitations of Chinese porcelain constructed in Venice and Florence
1576Martin Frobisher discovers Frobisher Bay and Baffin Island whilst searching for the North-West Passage
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Frobisher and the Road to Cathay
Peace of Chastenoy ends fifth War of Religion in France, Spanish forces on rampage in Antwerp, Congress of GhentDeath of TitianFrancois Viete introduces decimal fractions, Robert Norman discovers magnetic 'dip' or 'variation', Clusius' Flowers of Spain and Portugal which helps create modern botany
1577Francis Drake starts Circumnvavigation of the World (completed in 1580) Henry of Navarre recognised as Huguenot champion, Peace of Bergerac ends Sixth War of ReligionPalestrina is told to restore the purity of Gregorian Chant in church music
Francis Drake
Ortelius 1570 map of the World
1578Levant Trading Company founded in London for trading with Ottoman Empire, Francis Drake passes through Straits of Magellan and enters Pacific Ocean, Elizabeth grants Humphrey Gilbert permission to take and colonise 'all remote and heathen lands not in the actual possession of any Christian Prince', Martin Frobisher returns from Canada without discovering North-West Passage James VI takes over as King of Scotland from his regentsOtomo Yoshishige becomes first Japanese Lord to convert to Christianity, Portuguese sign peace treaty with Munhumutapa kingdom in the south Zambesi basin, King of Portugal is killed fighting Moors in North AfricaCatacombs of Rome discovered
1579Second Desmond Rebellion (until 1583), The Eastland Company or North Sea Company was formed to trade with Scandanavia and the Baltic, Father Thomas Stephens becomes first English person to settle in India in Goa
British Empire in Plymouth
The Golden Hind
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Search for NW Passage
1580Francis Drake returns to Plymouth on completion of his Circumnavigation laden with Spanish treasure Portugal united to Spain, Seventh French War of Religion breaks out, Venice imports Coffee from TurkeyDeath of Palladio
1581
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
Hawkins, Drake and Cavendish
Mughals conquer Afghanistan, Russia begins its conquest of SiberiaFirst known appearance of 'Greensleeves'Gallileo discovers isochronous property of the pendulum, William Borough's Discourse on the Variation of the Compass or Magneticall Needle
1582James VI kidnapped by Protestant noblesMughal Emperor Akbar seeks toleration between major religions of Indian sub-continent, Portuguese Matteo Ricci begins intensive study of Chinese language and culture at Macao, Japanese Christian delegation travels to Rome to seek an audience with PopeRichard Hakluyt's Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America and the Islands AdjacentUrbain Hemand investigates the anatomy of teeth
1583 Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland whilst searching for the North-West Passage, He dies on return voyage, Expedition to Mesopotamia, India and Persian Gulf led by Ralph Fitch and John EldredFirst life insurance policies in England, Throgmorton plot for Spanish invasion of England Burmese invade Yunnan province,
Sir Humphrey Gilbert Map
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Map
Andre Cesalpino's De Plantis the first modern classification of plants
1584Walter Raleigh despatches a reconnoitering expedition to North America as a precursor to sending English colonists to Virginia, they bring back two American Indians to the Court of Elizabeth
Francis Drake
Elizabeth
William of Orange assassinated on the orders of Philip II, Dutch trading post founded at Archangel in Russia
1585Roanoke Colony founded, , Ralph Lane discovers Chesapeake Bay, The Primrose affair sees English vessels in Spanish ports attacked and seized, Francis Drake leads expedition to Caribbean, John Davis discovers the Davis Strait whilst searching for a North-West PassageElizabeth decides to send an army to help the Dutch in their war against the SpanishAnother Religious war breaks out in an attempt to stop Henry of Navarre becoming the King of FranceDeath of Thomas TallisJamaican Ginger is the first Oriental spice to be grown in the New World and then successfully imported into Europe, Simon Stevin's La Disme which uses decimal fractions and the law of equilibrium, Bartholomew Newsam constructs first English travelling and standing clocks, Lucas Janszoon Waghearen's Spiegel der Zeevaart detailing sailing directions and techniques, Potatoes appear in England for first time
1586Francis Drake attacks Santa Domingo, Drake stops off at Roanoke and brings back most of the colonists including Ralph Lane, Thomas Cavendish begins his Circumnavigation of the World (until 1588)Babington PlotWidespread fighting in Low Countries, Mughals annex Kashmir, Pope agrees financial aid to Spanish to help send an Armada against EnglandEl Greco's Burial of Count Orgaz
Francis Drake
Santo Domingo Attacked by Drake
1587John White leads second attempt at establishing a colony at Roanoke, First English child born Virginia Dare at Roanoke Colony, John White returns to England leaving colonists in placeMary Queen of Scots executed by Elizabeth, Francis Drake attacks CadizEmperor Hideyoshi banishes Portuguese missionaries from Japan, Pope Sixtus V proclaims Catholic Crusade for an invasion of England Monteverdi's First Book of Madrigals Richard Hakluyt's Notable History, Containing Four Voyages made by Certain French Captains into Florida
1588Return of Thomas Cavendish from his Circumnavigation of the WorldSpanish ArmadaHenry of Guise claims French throne for Catholic League but is murderedChristopher Marlowe's The Tragedy of Dr Faustus, Palestrina's Lamentations Hortus Camerarius' Hortus Medicus
1589
Francis Drake
Spanish Armada
Francis Drake leads expedition to PortugalRussian Orthodox Church splits from Constantinople Patriarchy creating new Russian Patriarchate, Henry III of France killed replaced by Henry IV, Forks used for the first time in Eurorpe at the French CourtWilliam Byrd's Songs of Sundrie Natures Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations and Discoveries of the English Nation, William Lee invents first knitting machine
1590Walter Raleigh organises attempt to search for remnants of Roanoke Colony but they find it abandonedFrancis Drake, John Hawkins and Martin Frobisher attack Spanish and Portuguese CoastEmperor of Morroco takes Timbuktu, Persians and Turks end war, Civil War in FranceEdmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, El Greco's St. JeromeGalileo's De Motu describing experiments on dropping of various bodies
1591James Lancaster leaves Plymouth on first voyage to East Indies, Ralph Fitch returns from eight year overland journey through the Middle East and India Brazil is closed to all immigration accept from PortugalWilliam Shakespeare's Henry VIFrancois Viete's In artem analyticum isagoge on using letters for algebraic quantities
1592James Lancaster rounds Malay peninsula, Elizabeth supplies Sultan of Morroco with arms to attack Songhai Empire in Africa Portuguese settle in Mombasa, Spanish navigator Juan de Fuca explores the Pacific Coast of North America, Japanese invade Korea, Mughals take SindhTintoretto's The Last SupperRuins of Pompeii discovered, Galileo's Della Scienza Mechanica explaining the problems of raising weights
1593 Coal mining becomes increasingly popular as firewood becomes scarceHenry IV becomes a Catholic, Chinese forces enter Korea to repel Japanese, Spanish Franciscans arrive in JapanShakespeare's Richard IIIGiambattista della Porta describes binocular vision
1594James Lancaster loads up with Spices in India challenging the Portuguese monopoly on trade there, Lisbon closes its spice market to English traders as a consequence, Death of Martin Frobisher, Sir Richard Hawkins sails around Cape Horn and plunders Valparaiso before being taken prisoner at San Maeto Bay
British Empire Sixteenth Century Timeline
James Lancaster's Voyage to the Orient
Mughals take Kandahar, Edict of St. Germain-en-Laye grants freedom of worship to HuguenotsShakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Christopher Marlowe's DidoGalileo's Golden Rule
1595Walter Raleigh explores Orinoco River in South America whilst searching for El Dorado, O'Neill Rebellion (until 1601), Francis Drake and John Hawkins' final expedition to the Caribbean and Panama, Death of John Hawkins at Puerto Rico Spanish land force in Cornwall to attack Penzance and MouseholeDutch begin sending out ships to challenge Portuguese control of the spice tradeShakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream Mercator's Atlas published posthumously
1596Death of Francis Drake off Panama, Pacification of Ireland intensifiesEnglish sack Cadiz, Tomatoes arrive in England, England and Netherlands make alliance with France against SpanishWilliam Barents discovers Spitzbergen and Barents Sea, Spanish capture Calais, Peace between China and JapanShakespeare's Merchant of VeniceGalileo invents Thermometer, Ludolph von Ceulen calculates ratio of the diameter to the circumference of a circle to twenty places
1597Death of Francis Drake off Panama, English Act of Parliament prescribes sentences of transportation to colonies for convicted criminals for first time, English merchants expelled from Holy Roman Empire, Robert Devereux sails to Azores to capture Spanish treasure fleet but failsSecond Spanish Armada scattered by stormsDutch arrive at Batavia, William Barents dies in Arctic Ocean whilst searcing for North-East Passage, 26 Japanese Christians crucifiedFrancis Bacon's Essays
Francis Drake
Drake's Burial off Panama
1598O'Neill's Victory at Yellow Ford Dutch take Mauritius, France and Spain end war, Philip II dies and succeeded by Philip IIIShakespeare's Henry VCarlo Ruini writes manual on Veterinary Science, Tycho Brahe's Astronomia Instaurata, Korean Admiral Yisunsin clads ships in iron, Spain and Netherlands offer large prizes for anyone who can show a reliable way of calculating Longitude
1599Earl of Essex lands in Ireland with 17,000 troops but is defeated at ArklowElizabeth sends organ to Sultan of Turkey, She has Essex arrested when he leaves Ireland without permissionDutch fleet of eight ships arrives at Malacca, Dutch set up trading posts at Banda, Amboina and TernateShakespeare's Julius CaesarUlisshi Aldrovandi's Study of Ornithology





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