James Brooke 1860

Brunei's history was dominated very much by its relationship and increasingly reliance upon James Brooke and his heirs. Having trouble administering their own lands, they found it economically and politically expedient to outsource governance to James Brooke (and later his heirs) rather than struggle with corruption and resistance to Malay rule in return for annual tributes and cash payments. The two Sultans who lived during James' period of rule in Sarawak both admired and respected James despite his growing power vis-a-vis their own.

Brunei | Administrators


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by Stephen Luscombe