The Rajah Brooke turned idly to starboard, to enter the port of Sandaken
from the Suluk Sea. It was early morning, the sea was glassy, and there was
every indication that the day would be a scorcher. Town and harbour alike
were coming to life. Some of the First Class passengers were already on deck,
deck passengers were beginning to jockey for places with a view to landing, and
despite the distance between ship and shore friends on the jetty were already
beginning to wave.
The ship slipped slowly past Berhala Island, gliding towards one of the
two berths on her starboard bow. Sandaken harbour is vast: big enough to
have afforded shelter to the whole of the pre-1914 Royal Navy. It lies on
the East Coast of Sabah, the former British North Borneo, facing the southernmost
Philippines. It serves as the capital of the Sandakan Residency, with
its population of over 80,000: the timber which is the Residency's principal
export goes out through it, and virtually all the area's needs come in through
it. Although razed to the ground by the Japanese in 1945 it had been largely
restored; and as the Rajah Brooke moved towards her berth, the red-roofed
buildings crowding down to the water's edge showed no signs of the events of
19 years before.
For this was 1964. Recent political developments in Malaysia had led
to a demand for expatriate officers with knowledge of that country volunteering
to serve on a two years contract with the new administration, until such time
as indigenous officers should return from courses in Britain, Australia or
New Zealand to replace them. Having had many happy years of service in
Malaya and Singapore, I had put in my name, and rejoiced to find myself appointed
District Officer, Sandakan. So this was my home and responsibility for the
next two years which I was surveying from seaward in the cool of the early
morning as the Rajah Brooke nosed her way in after her coastal voyage of
250 miles from Kota Kinabalu, the former JesseIton.
Sandakan is a gazetted point of entry but as the ship had called at
Kota Kinabalu and had not left territorial waters it was not necessary to
obtain Immigration clearance. Just prior to my arrival at Sandakan there
had been an incident which, fortunately, turned out to be amusing. A small
ship had arrived from the islands adjacent to the Philippines. The small
vessel was crowded with people all desirous of entering Sabah, but none of
them held travel documents or any form of permission to enter the country.
The immigration officials refused permission to land; and this had resulted
in much shouting and appeals from the passengers, all of which went unheeded
by the officials.
When it appeared that the people had accepted the decision, the boat
cast off and proceeded a short way in to the harbour and stopped. Within
minutes there was pandemonium; screams and shouting from the boat brought
everyone within earshot running to the quayside. The boat was sinking.
Immediately rescue operations were put in hand; small craft pulled out
towards the sinking boat; women and children were bundled into the rescue
boats; those that could swim had jumped over the side and were making for
the harbour steps. It was all over in a matter of minutes, rescue complete,
no casualties, all safely landed.
I never learned who was responsible for the idea that the illegal
immigrants should be housed in a camp on the edge of the town, the camp to be
next door to the Immigration Office. From then on, of course, the care and
protection of the Illegal Immigrants was a charge on the Immigration Department -
a Federal Department - and therefore no cost to the State of Sabah.
While I was collecting my luggage in readiness to go ashore, another
District Officer - designate came aboard and made himself known to me. He
was destined for Beluran, some fifty miles into the interior from Sandakan.
We reckoned that it was too early to pay our official calls on the Resident, so we breakfasted, together at the Lodge, which stands on a hill above the
Residency, and commands one of the finest views in all Sabah. We found
that we had much in common, including a similar background in Malaya, a love
of that country and its people, and a command of its language. Although we
both realised that our time in Sabah was to be sadly limited by the very terms
of our contracts, we both looked forward eagerly to grappling with the tasks
concerning which we had been briefed before leaving Kota Kinabalu.
I duly reported to the Resident and after the preliminaries he informed
me that he had included me in an invitation for that evening. The invitation
was from the Board of the local prawn-packing factory, and I distinctly
remember that one of the items on the menu was raw fish. Being unable to
think up a reasonable excuse, I went along and spent a very interesting
On the Sunday morning I went down to look round the office and the area
surrounding the Government office. At the side of the road, just outside the
Police Station and immediately facing the Government Office, there was a small
monument in the shape of a Christian Cross. I walked over to read the inscriptions
cut into the stone and spent quite some time looking at this
monument. There was very little room left for additional names; it was a
monument to District Officers who had lost their lives in varying circumstances
while on duty. The Japanese had not destroyed this monument, although they
had razed the town to the ground. It occurred to me that the official who
had sited that monument in that location had a sense of humour, and while
there was little room left for additional carving - well, my surname does not
take up much room. The rest of the day was spent quietly and in the evening
I went to St Michael's (Anglican) Church on the hill.
Monday morning: I meet with myy predecessor in office and go through
the taking over / handing over procedure. The handing-over notes were complete, and I felt that the D.0. was anxious to be off to his new appointment as
Assistant Secretary 'G' in the Secretariat, I suggested that he should
now leave me to study the admin papers, and that perhaps he wished to attend
to last minute preparations concerning his removal to Kota Kinabalu.
As I sat and went through the papers, my mind was grappling with how
and where to start; and, most important, with whom would I be closely
involved in the matter of development. The briefing had been clear on this
point: the whole of the peripheral area of Sandakan was planned for development
right up to the 30th mile on the Telupid road.
Looking back to that Monday morning, I now realise how fortunate I
was in the subordinate staff who were in the District Office at that time.
They have all gone on to senior appointments in the Service, and they were
keen! Keenness, coupled with education and training, and you have the
ingredients for moulding an excellent unit. As I sat and wondered, there
was a knock on the door and in walked a fellow-expatriate, with a pleasant,
almost shy smile, removing a small blue denim-type sun hat; and as he held
out his hand he introduced himself as, "Bruce Sandilands, your Land Development
Officer". Bruce was accompanied by one of his own team. I was immediately
struck by the obvious fitness of both of them. Bruce was wearing shorts,
open necked shirts and his jungle boots. He was stocky and sturdy, and gave
the appearance of a man who spends a lot of time in the open air. He did.
Bruce was in his early forties and during the war he had served with
the Royal Marines. Though briefly in Crete, he had spent most of his active
service in Egypt and Palestine, In 1948 Bruce entered the Colonial Service.
In December of 1949 he became a District Surveyor with the department of
Lands and Surveys in North Borneo. In March 1955 he joined the Directorate of Overseas Surveys in the U.K., and was sent back to Sabah, where he served
mainly in remote jungle areas for six years from January 1956. It has
indeed often been said that few if any knew the Sabah jungle as well as Bruce
Sandilands. From 1962, he served in different areas as a Land Settlement
and Development officer. Thus we met in early 1964.
Within the first hour of our meeting Bruce was putting me in the
picture - there was a map on the wall of the office, covering the whole of
the wall and showing in detail the various lots of timber land to be developed.
It was a very detailed briefing and Bruce had covered the whole of the
district adding his own knowledge of the physical problems in particular
areas. Finally, he advised me that there were some fifteen people
experiencing hardship from lack of roofing for their houses, and from raids
on their cash crops by wild pig. We agreed that this would be our first
task, and Bruce arranged for some of his men to meet at the 17th mile on the
Bruce not only knew the Jungle but in knowing it, he respected it.
He had his own ideas about the type of men he wanted in his gang; and there
was a type of discipline amongst them that comes from knowing that life or
death may depend on any one of them being able to do the right thing at any
given moment. These men were Ibans, favourites for jungle work, and they
never moved without a Parang in their scabbard; all else was secondary to
this requirement. Ibans armed with the large Parang, which is a giant~shaped
knife usually carried in a bamboo scabbard, can exist in any jungle and live
off the land. When I first saw them sitting outside the office where they
had been waiting patiently for Bruce, they seemed to be uncomfortable at
being so near to a town. They were eager to be back to the Ulu (jungle) and
there was an obvious close link between these Ibans and their Tuan, a quiet
conversational tone between them, not orders; and away they went, back to
the 30 mile area.
There have not been many Officers of the Bruce Sandilands type in the
Colonial Service; and if entry, in his case, had depended on academic prowess
alone, the Service would have lost the great contribution that this humble man
brought to Sabah. But Providence does have a say in the affairs of men; and
Bruce came to Sabah and, with the aid of his beloved Ibans, built his own
Bungalow at 30 mile Telupid Road.
About that bungalow: I should perhaps point out that the Telupid
'road' was nothing more than a dirt track or trace along which the P.W.D.
would in due course lay a tar-macadam road; but, at the time when the bungalow
was built, this track was closed to all traffic during the monsoon period.
Bruce had decided that he could not afford to be cut off from the 30-mile
area and obtained permission from the Resident of the day to build his
bungalow on the North side of the road. A sum of money was voted to Bruce,
no doubt as Land Development Officer, in the estimates, and the bungalow
was built. I remember him saying how he had arrived at the side of the
road and selecting the site, and had set up a temporary shelter until the
main bungalow was ready. The timber was felled in the adjacent jungle for
frame, flooring and walls, and the broad Nipah leaves were used in the same
way that the Natives used them for covering the roof. Use had also been made
of the ubiquitous corrugated metal sheeting. The choice of this particular
site was to prove of strategic importance in the years to come, almost as if
Bruce had been guided by prophetic sight.
Before my arrival at Sandakan, Bruce had shared with a colleague a
Government quarter near the town: one room and the use of the facilities
when it was necessary for him to stop overnight. After my arrival, unaccompanied
by family, he spent his time at my bungalow, where "development"
was the main topic of conversation. Bruce was dedicated to the development
of Sabah, and his enthusiasm was infectious.
On Saturday morning, accompanied by Henry Brand, Bruce's No. 2, and two
of the 'gang', we set off for the 17th mile stone and there met Bruce as
previously agreed. Bruce had brought the Headman of the village to meet the
new District Officer, and here again it was obvious that Bruce was on
excellent terms with the locals at 17 m.s. Someone had thought to bring a
camera, and I am glad to say that I have a photograph of that 'Squad' just
before we set off in to the jungle to visit the people whom Bruce had spoken
of to me.
At first I thought that it was going to be quite a trek and although
we were properly dressed for the journey, I had certain misgivings which I
had kept to myself. For instance, it was perfectly obvious that Bruce and
company were fit and used to this sort of thing. Was I going to be able to
keep up with them?
My luck was in; just after we had crossed the river and moved in for a
short distance, we came upon an old logging rail track which the logging
contractor had left behind. This really proved to be a boon. We were able
to walk on the sleepers; and when we came to the gaps where sleepers had
fallen out, we were able to walk on the rails across the undulating ground.
This was a tremendous help, since the ground in Sabah is very slinky and without
grit of any kind. To walk and slip all over the place can prove to be
very trying, as I was to discover on other occasions.
When we approached the clearing, Bruce waited for me to catch up;
and as we entered the people came out of their huts and, on seeing Bruce,
gave shouts of welcome and came forward to shake his hand. During this
sincere welcome from all the families, I remember noticing a peculiar method
of security in the erection of their houses. The floors were well above
ground level, and in order to enter the house it was necessary to ascend by
way of a narrow piece of timber which had been cut from a jungle roller (type of sapling) and, which in turn had notches cut at intervals, one above the
other. At night this piece of timber was taken up into the house. When
the introductions had been made and the usual courtesies dispensed with, we
went to inspect the clearing.
Although there were only a few able bodied men in the group, they had
succeeded in clearing an area of some fifteen acres and, in the words of
people who are concerned with reclaiming land from the jungle, they had had
a 'Good Burn'. There were still a few large stumps to be cleared, but on
the whole the area had been cleared for planting. The
'Cash' crops had
been planted and the ubiquitous Maize was struggling to grow. But the
wild pig had been active, and it was obvious that, without help, the pig
would soon destroy all cultivation.
The situation was as Bruce had described it; and after inspecting
the whole area we made notes of what was required, and arranged for the men
of the village to come out to 17 m.s. and collect the stores.
At the time of this visit Malaysia was engaged in confrontation with
Indonesia, and movement between the two countries had been curtailed. The
island of Borneo is divided between Malaysia and Indonesia: and today it is
shown on the Map as Sabah to the North and Kalimantan to the south. Before
confrontation many people of Indonesian Nationality had settled in what was
British North Borneo and little or no attention had been paid to them. When
we returned to Sandakan late that day I remarked to Bruce that I had been very
surprised to find that the people we had seen that day were Indonesian. As I
look back, I now know that I was seeing the real Bruce Sandilands: his reply
was made with that slow quiet smile, a slight shrug of the shoulders:
"Indonesians, they are people".
This was the distinguishing characteristic of Bruce: his genuine
concern for people, especially the indigenous people of the country, and the
fact that these people in that particular clearing were Indonesian made no difference. They were "people", trying to make a home in the jungle, and
they needed help. Who they were; what they were; what colour; what
denomination; they were"people" striving to do for themselves.
I have said that "30 mile" was a strategic area. As well as being
a natural Road Head, there was also access to a main river in use by Loggers
and travellers to the Beluran District. It was Bruce who first brought it
to my attention that a landing stage was essential for all users of this
river; and, coincidentally, a manager of one of the estates called at the
District Office at about the same time asking for such a landing stage to be
The landing stage was erected, and soon became known as "the 30 mile
river point". From here it was possible to make quick progress towards the
Labuk and Sugut in the N.E. of the territory. Moving away from the Landing
Stage to the North the river flowed towards the Suluk Sea; and by changing
course to the N.W. one was soon in the Beluran District where, amongst other
pioneer developments, Cadbury were experimenting with the growing of Cocoa.
It may seem incredible, but all of this was happening as late as from
1963 onwards; and the man who knew most about the whole area, in so far as
travel was concerned, was Bruce Sandilands.
During 1964-65, the Government decided that the five year development plan
referred to as "The Red Book" should be implemented in Sabah. The idea was
popular; and every District had to prepare a 'Red Book' with a duplicate
which was to be retained in the Government Offices at Kota-Kinabalu. The
preparation of the 'Red Book' was a team effort by every Government department
in the District, and the delineation of areas and boundaries was the responsibility
of the District Surveyor. Many meetings were convened and suggestions
considered for entry into this most important 'Red Book'. Bruce Sandilands
played an important part at those meetings; and if and when a new town appears
at the 30 mile area, the following were included in the Sandakan 'Red Book':
Clinic; School; Shopping Centre; Church, Muslim Surau.
The two main rivers bounding Sandakan were the Labuk to the North and
the Kinabatangan to the South. The area between the Labuk and Kinabatangan
Rivers is on average fifty miles wide, a rough and tangled country of mountain,
jungle and turbulent streams. The making of an accurate survey called for a
high degree of technical skill and almost unlimited physical endurance in an
Both rivers are subject to sudden and alarming rise in level brought
about by the heavy tropical rain. Water pours in off the side of the foothills;
and when the deluge is sustained the level of the rivers can rise by
up to eighteen feet overnight. This does cause severe flooding, particular? ly
in the early months of the year, but it is possible to be surprised before or
after the anticipated period. The type of river craft used in negotiating
the river varies, but perhaps the most popular are the "Jongkangs" or "Gobangs".
Referring to the latter, this name is brought about by what are
called "loan words" from the English Language. The craft is a locally made
boat, but with the advent of the out-board engine the transom is strengthened
in order to support the out-board engine, fixed at the rear of the craft.
The normal engine is a 6 h.p. 'Jap' which propels the craft along with a "phut
phut" noise, clearly recognisable when heard in the distance. Hence the name
given by the local Natives, "Go Bang".
The other type of craft, the "Jongkang", is the more suitable for going
on a tour that may keep you away from the station for some time. First of
all you have to be able to carry the fuel necessary for the out-board engine
to take you there and back. This can be stored under the floor-boards of
the craft. There is also room for stores and equipment. At the end of
the day's run, it is possible to make ready to spend the night on the craft by
putting up mosquito netting at each end of a Nipah Leaf roofing, which serves
the dual purpose of protecting you from the rain or the sun during the journey.
So much for travel by the main water-ways and the craft used in Eastern
Sabah; but it has to be emphasised that this mode of travel is the easiest,
and nearly always brings you to the peoples settled round the coastline and
along the rivers of Sabah. For men concerned with Estates and development of
the interior, the only other method was walking. Prior to taking up his
appointment as Land Development Officer, Bruce had been involved in the siting
of Trig points, which is a fundamental requirement in map making.
The survey teams would make their way as far as possible by river; and
then they would remove the craft from the water, high enough to be safe until
their return. From here on in to the jungle they would be dependent on
compass readings. The objective would be a previously determined mountain
top. The team operating in the Kinabatangan area would be making for a point
giving a view to the North, while the team in the Labuk area would be making
for a point giving a view to the South. To reach these points might take
weeks. Most of the trek would be through virgin jungle requiring the
constant use of the invaluable Parang. With luck you might come on streams
which would give access to open space along the line you were following; but
then you would have to leave and continue along the defined bearing. As you
climb away from Sea Level, the route becomes more difficult and, worst of all,
the ground in Sabah has one miserable fault: there is literally no grit in
it as you slip and slide and catch hold of the ground, it simply oozes
through your fingers.
Having achieved a few yards in difficult parts, you stop for a break
and take stock of the leech problem. This invariably becomes a two-man job
and each lights a cigarette. You never feel a leech alighting on your skin;
and, as you struggle to make your ascent, you will not have seen them. But,
there they are: stuck in, fat and bloated with your blood. The cigarette
is drawn red hot, applied to the horror, and it drops off. Those that you
do not see, your partner attends to, and you must not forget to take great care of the most intimate and sensitive parts of the body.
Normally the day is from Sun-up to Sun-down: by 7 pm it will be dark.
Therefore a suitable site must be chosen in the late afternoon for a camp, and
the essential camp chores attended to, stores and equipment made secure.
Personal discipline is of the essence, and the Iban on these expeditions was
a natural. The new day would dawn; and without fuss the team would move
out and on, upwards to the top.
When the top is reached, care must be exercised in the choice of camping
site. The view must be unrestricted. If the weather is doubtful, with low
clouds or mist, patience is an absolute "must". Each night at a pre-arranged
time a signal lamp would be used and the call sign would be flashed intermittently,
hoping for contact to be established. This could take days,
depending on how soon the teams reached their objectives, for it was not
certain that they could arrive at the top of their respective mountains at
the same time of day, or even on the same day. But, suddenly, there is an
answering flash and the exchange of information begins. The technical data
are recorded carefully, and in a comparatively short time all that is required on this occasion is completed. A further step in triangulation has taken
place, and now the return journey must begin. Once more one must have
recourse to compass and back bearings, so as to arrive accurately at the place
where the boat was secured.
Sabah is in fact not unlike a large triangle in appearance on the map
of what was once country of some 30,000 square miles is populated in areas following the coastline with ranges of mountains making up the Interior, you get an idea of the
primitive and therefore difficult problems facing those survey teams. There
is a total absence of bird life except for an occasional Horn Bill, (The Sacred
Bird of the Murut Tribe) and a large eagle-like type, seen from time to time.
There is no big game such as tiger, but there is a small greyish leopard referred to as the snow-leopard; again, very rare, and in the lower region,
is the orang utan. In fact the surveyors could well he the first men to set
foot on the mountain since creation.
"Sandilands Chits": these were notes of authority issued by Bruce to
natives to develop and occupy 5 acres of logged land. They caused quite a
rumpus in the Head Office of Lands and Survey, and in the Resident's Office
at Sandakan. The matter was referred to me for investigation.
The emphasis from 1963 onwards was on "development". A major scheme
had been projected in the Sandakan District named "The Sungei Manilla Scheme".
The area chosen for this scheme extended over 12,000 acres of good timber land,
and was to be let on tender. The successful contractor was to take the logs
off the land under the supervision of the Forestry Department, and at the same
time to construct roads of not less than 40 feet width. The method of logging
was stipulated so that the top soil would not be ruined.
The L.D.O. (Bruce Sandilands) was responsible for the cutting of rentis
(a small pathway around the perimeter of the surveyed area which would stand
out clearly in aerial photographs). In addition to the periphery, the L.D.O.
would also cut the rentis showing where the roads were to be constructed.
It was during this period of operations that the 'Chits' began to appear.
It was also noticeable that the 5 acre areas were nowhere near projected
schemes, and that all commercial timber had been removed. The likelihood of
anyone, other than the Natives to whom Bruce gave his 'Chits', wishing to go
on the land and develop it as a homestead, was very remote indeed. Knowing
Bruce, there had to be an explanation.
At about this time it was suggested by the Resident that I should pay
a visit to Semporna. Semporna, a beautiful District lay further down the
East Coast of Sabah. It was ahead of Sandakan in planting oil palm as a
main crop. The soil was known to be shallow and based on lava rock. I
left for Semporna, and took the Development Policy File so that I could study
the minutes and earliest appreciations.
When I reached the implementation stage, I was amazed to find a circular
instructing that, "Natives were to be given five acres of land as a homestead".
Granted, the file was voluminous and the circular was near the bottom of the
file; "but at no stage had it been cancelled. On my return to Sandakan I
drew the attention of the relevant authority to this extant circular. It was
obvious that the contents had either never been fully circulated, or that they
had been forgotten. In any case, the idea had probably been expedient in the
initial stages and the cancellation of the instructions had been overtaken by
the Self-Governing political situation which had resulted in the departure of
many ex-patriate officers on pension.
In defence of Bruce, it would be difficult, in view of the nature of
his duties and his long absences from the office, to be up to date with change
in policy if not brought specifically to his attention. It is of passing
interest that those seniorofficers who sat in office every day had failed to
note the existence of that circular.
Bruce left Sabah in 1971 and took up employment as a Surveyor with
The Greater London Council. On the 17th October, 1975? he returned to Sabah
as a District Surveyor on Contract. In spite of the four year absence, it
was typical of Bruce to be on his way within three weeks to Keningau, the
Central Residency in Sabah. Here he made arrangements to proceed towards
Sepulot in the South and from there in to 'No man's land', the Pensiangan
area and south-east towards Banbangan. With hindsight, this is country
where Bruce should have waited until he had his Ibans together again; but
perhaps after such a long absence, they would have scattered, and it would have taken longer than three weeks to re-call them.
From Sepulot, Bruce entered the jungle and was engaged on duty from the
5th November until the 24th, when he was air-lifted by helicopter from the
immediate Kalimantan Border in the South and taken to a landing pad which was
being used as a forward supply area. After a week's rest, he once more set
off with four of his new team on December 1st, aiming for Bambangan.
The dense unknown jungle in this particular area must have been causing great
difficulty; and four days later, on the 5th December, Bruce decided to return
to the Forward Supply Point.
It was not the jungle which was turning him back. He realised that
he was running a fever and suffering from "Singapore Foot". This meant
that he could only move slowly. He gave instructions to the men with him
to proceed and open a path for a certain distance when he would catch up with
them. They were not "his" Ibans. They went ahead, but they did not wait.
They never met again.
It is now known that the real tragedy arose from a series of breakdowns;
and, as usual, there was no human habitation within miles of the
area where he was working. There was a breakdown of the Helicopter Service
and non-functioning of a radio post, the result being that nearly two weeks
elapsed before news came through to Kota-Kinabalu about his disappearance.
Even then, it took some time before search parties could reach the particular
area in which Bruce was last seen.
There was very good evidence that he was still alive, some weeks after
his disappearance, from the remains of nuts and fruits cut by his parang, in
an uninhabited area. The search parties were six in number, made up of six
men to each party. They were backed up by helicopters, but visibility from
the air would be almost nil, as the ground is completely blanketed by the
tropical forest. These men stuck to their task until, on the 10th of February,
Bruce was found dead beside a river. The discovery was made three days
after the arrival of his brother, Douglas, who had gone out to Sabah to help
in the search.
In spite of the fever and the agony of that festering which is called
'Singapore Foot', Bruce had stuck to his old discipline: "when lost, make
for the river." He stayed by the river, his parang by his side to the last,
existing on nuts, grass and water. When his body was found, there were some
letters beside it and a diary which Bruce had entered up to the 22nd December.
The diary is now with the family in Sussex and I quote the following extracts,
the final entries:
"Seems I have risked my life for Sabah once too often".
"If I die I have given my life to Survey for which I have always
worked in the belief my skills were best used that way to Service
of God and fellow men".
"I will have been relieved of the trials of old age".
"Prayers are a link with Heaven and earth and I hope you will
from time to time remember me. As to your futures ... I wish
you all that they will be directed to God's Will and be as
happy and rewarding as ray life has been".
"Now that I am weak and feel I must say ray last farewells. I am
in good spirit, praying and praising God .... The Grace of our
Lord Jesus Christ, and the Love of God, and the Fellowship of
The Holy Spirit be with us ever more".
Bruce was buried in the Cemetery at Kota Kinabalu after a service held
in the Cathedral. He had been awarded the O.B.E. for his service in Sabah,
and there is talk of a Memorial being erected to his memory in the shape of
a Rest House overlooking the Sensurin Jungle.
Bruce was a nephew of the 13th Lord Torphichen, head of a family which
has been settled in Clydesdale since the 14th century.
Although his roots remained in Lanarkshire, and although he was first
and foremost a Scotsman, it was to Sabah that he gave the best years of his
life, and the people of Sabah that he served as a humble and witnessing
Christian. It is among them that his true memorial is to be found.