Prior to World War I there was only one infantry regiment on the permanent establishment in Canada, the Royal Canadian. The bulk of Canada's land forces was in a part-time Militia. The origins of the Militia date back to the beginning of the 19th century but they deteriorated and the defence of the country rested with British regular troops garrisoned there. The Crimean War in 1854 caused a withdrawal of the British troops to fight the Russians so the Militia Act was passed by the Canadian Government in 1855 and a new determination to train and equip them properly prevailed.

The Militia saw active service in the Fenian raids of 1866 and 1870. They took part in the British led Red River Expedition of 1870 and the 1885 rebellion in northwest Canada. Many of them volunteered for the South African War in 1899, serving with great distinction.

At the outbreak of war in 1914 the Militia units were under strength so it was decided to enroll volunteers in 260 new, full-strength battalions consisting of 1000 men each. These battalions were known as the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). For the most part these battalions were raised by the Militia units. For example the 48th Highlanders raised three battalions which were numbered 15, 92 and 134 in the new CEF. These numbered units were called battalions rather than regiments. At first the badges were Maple Leaf shape with the battalion number and name but more individual badges were designed and replaced these.

A typical life of a battalion can be found in the 210th Battalion.

Permanent Infantry
Number Title
The Royal Canadian Regiment
Militia Infantry
Number Title
The Governor General's Foot Guards
1st Regiment (The Grenadier Guards of Canada)
2nd Regiment (Queen's Own Rifles of Canada)
3rd Regiment (Victoria Rifles of Canada)
4th Regiment (Chasseurs Canadiens)
5th Regiment (Royal Highlanders of Canada)
6th Regiment (The Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles)
7th Regiment (Fusiliers)
8th Regiment (Royal Rifles)
9th Regiment (Voltigeurs de Quebec)
10th Regiment (Royal Grenadiers)
11th Regiment (Irish Fusiliers of Canada)
12th Regiment (York Rangers)
13th Royal Regiment
14th Regiment (The Princess of Wales's Own Rifles)
15th Regiment (Argyll Light Infantry)
16th Prince Edward Regiment
17th Regiment
18th Saguenay Regiment
19th Lincoln Regiment
20th Regiment (Halton Rifles)
21st Regiment (Essex Fusiliers)
22nd Regiment (The Oxford Rifles)
23rd Regiment (The Northern Pioneers)
24th Kent Regiment
25th Regiment
26th Regiment (Middlesex Light Infantry)
27th Lambton Regiment (St.Clair Borderers)
28th Perth Regiment
29th Waterloo Regiment
30th Regiment (Wellington Rifles)
31st Grey Regiment
32nd Bruce Rgiment
33rd Huron Regiment
34th Ontario Regiment
35th Regiment (Simcoe Foresters)
36th Peel Regiment
37th Regiment (Haldimand Rifles)
38th Regiment (Dufferin Rifles of Canada)
39th Regiment (Norfolk Rifles)
40th Northumberland Regiment
41st Regiment (Brockville Rifles)
42nd Lanark and Renfrew Regiment
43rd Regiment (The Duke of Cornwall's Own Rifles)
44th Lincoln and Welland Regiment
45th Victoria Regiment
46th Durham Regiment
47th Frontenac Regiment
48th Regiment (Highlanders)
49th Regiment (Hastings Rifles)
50th Regiment (Gordon Highlanders)
51st Regiment (The Soo Rifles)
52nd Regiment (Prince Albert Volunteers)
53rd Sherbrooke Regiment
54th Regiment (Carabiniers de Sherbrooke)
55th Regiment vacant in 1914
56th Grenville Regiment (Lisgar Rifles)
57th Regiment (Peterborough Rangers)
58th Regiment vacant in 1914
59th Stormont and Glengarry Regiment
60th Rifles of Canada
61st Montmagny and L'Islet Regiment
62nd Regiment (St John Fusiliers)
63rd Regiment (Halifax Rifles)
64th Chateaguay and Beauharnois Regiment
65th Regiment (Mount Royal Rifles)
66th Regiment (Princess Louise's Fusiliers)
67th Regiment (Carleton light Infantry)
68th Earl Grey's Own Rifles
69th Annapolis Regiment
70th Regiment vacant in 1914
71st York Regiment
72nd Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
73rd Northumberland Regiment
74th Regiment (New Brunswick Rangers)
75th Lunenburg Regiment
76th Colchester and Hants Rifles
77th Wentworth Regiment
78th Pictou Regiment (Highlanders)
79th Cameron Highlanders of Canada
80th Nicolert Regiment
81st Hants Regiment
82nd (Abegweit Light Infantry) Regiment
83rd Joliette Regiment
84th St. Hyacinthe Regiment
85th Regiment
86th Regiment vacant in 1914
87th Quebec Regiment
88th Regiment (Victoria Fusiliers)
89th Temiscouata and Rimouski Regiment
90th Regiment (Winnipeg Rifles)
91st Regiment (Canadian Highlanders)
92nd Dorchester Regiment
93rd Cumberland Regiment
94th Victoria Regiment (Argyll Highlanders)
95th Saskatchewan Rifles
96th Lake Superior Regiment
97th Regiment (Algonquin Rifles)
98th Regiment
99th Manitoba Rangers
100th Winnipeg Grenadiers
101st Regiment (Edmonton Fusiliers)
102nd Regiment (Rocky Mountain Rangers)
103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles)
104th Regiment (Westminster Fusiliers of Canada)
105th Regiment (Saskatoon Fusiliers)
106th Regiment (Winnipeg Light Infantry)
107th East Kootenay Regiment
Canadian Expeditionary Force
Number Title
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
1st Battalion - Western Ontario
2nd Battalion - The Governor General's Foot Guards
3rd Battalion - Toronto Regiment
4th Battalion - County of London Volunteer Rifles (Canada)
5th Battalion
6th Battalion - Winnipeg
7th Battalion - 1st British Columbian
8th Battalion
9th Battalion - 2nd Bn South Saskatchewan Regiment
10th Battalion - Calgary Highlanders
11th Battalion
12th Battalion
13th Battalion
14th Battalion
15th Battalion - Algonquin Rifles
16th Battalion - Winnipeg
17th Battalion - Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
18th Battalion - The Elgin Regiment
19th Battalion - 2nd Bn Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders of Canada
20th Battalion
21st Battalion - Eastern Ontario
22nd Battalion - Le Royal Vingt-Deuxieme Regiment
23rd Battalion - Le Royal Vingt-Deuxieme Regiment
24th Battalion - Victoria Rifles, Montreal
25th Battalion - Nova Scotia
26th Battalion - New Brunswick
27th Battalion
28th Battalion
29th Battalion
30th Battalion - Earl Grey's Own Rifles
31st Battalion - The Alberta Regiment
32nd Battalion
33rd Battalion
34th Battalion
35th Battalion
36th Battalion
37th Battalion
38th Battalion
39th Battalion
40th Battalion
41st Battalion - French Canadian
42nd Battalion - Royal Highlanders of Canada (Black Watch)
43rd Battalion - Cameron Highlanders of Canada
44th Battalion
45th Battalion
46th Battalion
47th Battalion
48th Battalion - Highlanders
49th Battalion - Alberta
50th Battalion - Gordon Highlanders of Canada
51st Battalion
52nd Battalion
53rd Battalion
54th Battalion
55th Battalion
56th Battalion
57th Battalion
58th Battalion
59th Battalion
60th Battalion
61st Battalion
62nd Battalion
63rd Battalion
64th Battalion
65th Battalion
66th Battalion
67th Battalion - Western Scots, British Columbia
68th Battalion
69th Battalion - French Canadian
70th Battalion
71st Battalion
72nd Battalion - Seaforth Highlanders of Vancouver
73rd Battalion
74th Battalion
75th Battalion
76th Battalion
77th Battalion
78th Battalion - Winnipeg Grenadiers
79th Battalion
80th Battalion
81st Battalion
82nd Battalion
83rd Battalion
84th Battalion
85th Battalion - Nova Scotia Highlanders
86th Battalion
87th Battalion - Canadian Grenadier Guards
88th Battalion
89th Battalion
90th Battalion
91st Battalion
92nd Battalion - Highlanders
93rd Battalion
94th Battalion
95th Battalion - Nova Scotia
96th Battalion - Canadian Highlanders
97th Battalion - American Legion
98th Battalion
99th Battalion
100th Battalion - Winnipeg Grenadiers
101st Battalion
102nd Battalion - North British Columbians
103rd Battalion
104th Battalion- New Brunswick
105th Battalion
106th Battalion - Nova Scotia
107th Battalion - Winnipeg
108th Battalion - Bantams
109th Battalion
110th Battalion
111th Battalion - South Waterloo
112th Battalion - Acadians, Nova Scotia
113th Battalion - Lethbridge Highlanders
114th Battalion - Brock's Rangers
115th Battalion
116th Battalion
117th Battalion
118th Battalion
119th Battalion
120th Battalion
121st Battalion - Western Irish
122nd Battalion
123rd Battalion - Royal Grenadiers, C.E.F
124th Battalion - Pals
125th Battalion
126th Battalion
127th Battalion
128th Battalion - Moose Jaw
129th Battalion
130th Battalion
131st Battalion
132nd Battalion
133rd Battalion - Norfolk's Own
134th Battalion - Highlanders
135th Battalion
136th Battalion - The Durham Regiment
137th Battalion
138th Battalion
139th Battalion
140th Battalion
141st Battalion - Border Bull Moose
142nd Battalion - London's Own
143rd Battalion - B C Bantams
144th Battalion
145th Battalion
146th Battalion
147th Battalion
148th Battalion
149th Battalion
150th Battalion - Carabiniers Mont Royal
151st Battalion
152nd Battalion
153rd Battalion
154th Battalion
155th Battalion - 1st Bn Argyll Light Infantry
156th Battalion - Brockville Rifles
157th Battalion
158th Battalion - Duke of Connaught's Own
159th Battalion - 1st Algogquins
160th Battalion - The Bruce Regiment
161st Battalion
162nd Battalion
163rd Battalion - French Canadian
164th Battalion
165th Battalion - Acadiens
166th Battalion
167th Battalion - French Canadian
168th Battalion
169th Battalion
170th Battalion
171st Battalion
172nd Battalion
173rd Battalion
174th Battalion
175th Battalion
176th Battalion - Niagara Rangers
177th Battalion
178th Battalion - French Canadian
179th Battalion
180th Battalion - Sportsmen
181st Battalion - Brandon
182nd Battalion
183rd Battalion - Manitoba Beavers
184th Battalion
185th Battalion
186th Battalion
187th Battalion
188th Battalion
189th Battalion
190th Battalion
191st Battalion - Southern Alberta
192nd Battalion - Crow's Nest Pass, Alberta
193rd Battalion
194th Battalion
195th Battalion - Saskatchewan
196th Battalion - Western Universities
197th Battalion - Vikings of Canada
198th Battalion - Canadian Buffs
199th Battalion - Irish Rangers
200th Battalion
201st Battalion
202nd Sportsmens Battalion - Edmonton, Alberta
203rd Battalion
204th Battalion- Beavers
205th Battalion
206th Battalion - French Canadian
207th Battalion
208th Battalion - Irish
209th Battalion
210th Battalion - Frontiersmen
211th Battalion - American
212th Battalion - American
213th Battalion - American
214th Battalion
215th Battalion
216th Battalion - Bantams
217th Battalion - 1st Bn South Saskatchewan Regiment
218th Battalion - Irish, Alberta
219th Battalion
220th Battalion
221st Battalion
222nd Battalion
223rd Battalion - Canadian Scandanavians
224th Battalion - Canadian Foresters
225th Battalion
226th Battalion - Men of the North
227th Battalion - Men of the North
228th Battalion - Moose Jaw
229th Battalion
230th Battalion - Voltigeurs Canadiens Francais
231st Battalion - Vancouver
232nd Battalion
233rd Battalion - North West French Canadians
234th Battalion
235th Battalion
236th Battalion - Sir Sam's Own, the New Brunswick Kilties
237th Battalion - American
238th Battalion
239th Battalion
240th Battalion
241st Battalion - Canadian Scottish Borderers
242nd Battalion - London's Own
243rd Battalion - B C Bantams
244th Battalion - Kitchener's Own
245th Battalion - Canadian Grenadier Guards
246th Battalion
247th Battalion
248th Battalion
249th Battalion
250th Battalion - White Eagles
251st Battalion - Good Fellows
252nd Battalion
253rd Queen's University Overseas Highland Battalion
254th Battalion - Quinte's Own
255th Battalion
256th Battalion - Railway Construction
257th Battalion
258th Battalion - French Canadian
259th Battalion
260th Battalion

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by Stephen Luscombe