Liman von Sanders


Liman von Sanders (centre) had been the commander of the German Military Mission to Constantinople which began back in 1913. He and Enver Pasha did not get along with one another largely due to Sanders' continued criticism of Turkish military facilities and training. Nevertheless, Enver Pasha appointed him commander of the Turkish defence of the Dardanelles after it became clear that the Allies were switching from a naval assault to an army one.

On the front row from left to right: Hüseyin Rauf Bey, chief of staff of the ottoman admirality, Vehib Pasha, Commander of the south group (Gallipoli), Liman von Sanders, Otto: General, commander in chief of the ottoman army, Esat Pasha, Commander of the north group (Gallipoli), Süleyman Pasha, head of the medical service, Cevat Pasha, military governor of Istanbul


The Gallipoli Campaign



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