From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

Appendix A

My First Tour Report: Chief Mukupa Kaoma's area, 1963
Set out below is a copy of my first Tour Report in full. My DC would make comments on each annexure before forwarding a copy of the report to the PC. At the end of my Report are my hand-drawn map of the area and statistical tables; the latter were of great use to the 'Native Authority' for tax purposes, and gave us a clear insight on male migrant labour - most went to the Copperbelt for employment. I have retained copies of my second and third Tour Reports, whose length and contents (including statistics and maps) are similar.

The Report's inclusion in this book is intended to answer an average reader's queries as to what pre-Independence DOs did on tour, why they went, and what were their interests and objectives.

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

Annexure I; GENERAL.
Chief Mukupa Kaoma's area, lying directly to the south of Mporokoso Soma, is mostly high plateau rising to over 5,000 feet in many places. It encompasses the headwaters of three large rivers and their tributaries: the Kalungwishi, Luangwa and Lukulu. The Musumba is sited on the crest of an escarpment, with a fine view to the south-east over the upper basin of the Lukulu. The two parishes toured were Chundu in the north-east and Malaila including the Musumba in the south-east; they form the larger and more interesting part of the Chief's area, but had not been toured by a Soma officer since 1960. A number of changes have taken place since then.

The Lungu area, comprising Chiefs Mukupa Kaoma and his cousin Chitoshi, is very much the Cinderella of Mporokoso District. There is little or no trade, and hardly any labour except that provided occasionally by the poor Native Authority or recently by the small Agricultural Department substation. At first sight it has little to offer in its natural resources, and certainly nothing to compare with the fish industry of the Tabwa to the north. The Native Treasury struggles; without a generous deficiency grant at the end of last year, its head would scarcely be above water.

The people are very friendly, contented and for the most part easy-going, and this impression is given by the Native Authority staff as well as the villager. Some effects of this attitude may be noticed in other parts of this report. At any rate, for all its deficiencies, this is a most happy area to visit and work in. The touring party was well received in all but a few villages and, although times have changed, the older people still observe some of the elaborate etiquette of greeting the touring officer. At most villages, and more especially in the north, food was provided for the party. The villages were generally of a high standard, clean and well laid out, although small. The Chief obviously takes a pride in the condition of the villages, and when a village moves he personally chooses the new site and plans the layout; in this and in other ways he keeps in close contact with the people. He himself was unfortunately not able to accompany me on tour, as he had only returned from a session of the House of Chiefs when I was half-way through, and then he was preparing to follow up his work there by visits to his fellow Chiefs in this and neighbouring Districts. However, he took great interest in the progress of the tour and at the end we had long discussions on matters arising.

Politically the whole area is quiet. They had their troubles in 1958 and 1961, just like everybody else; road blocks were constructed, the school staff were in fear of their lives, and the Chief was threatened by a mob with spears. At election time last year I presided at the polling station here and nothing could have been more peaceful. There are few branches of political parties here compared with the rest of the District, and local opinion is that most trouble-makers that do appear come from the neighbouring area of Chief Shibwalya Kapila. During the course of the tour a political meeting was held at the Musumba, and one of my Messengers went to attend. From his report I gathered that, in spite of distances, more than half of the 450 audience had come from the areas of Chiefs Chitoshi and Shibwalya Kapila, and nearly all those locally resident came from the Musumba itself. In the villages we toured that day only three people had gone to attend that meeting. My general impression is (and here, as in most of my report, I make the distinction between the Musumba with its environs and the rest of the outlying villages) that in the villages the people are not madly interested in politics; they just wish to live, to let live, and to be left alone. The same easily contented and unambitious attitude may be noticed in their relationships with the Native Authority, the Soma, and other Government Departments; they respect them all, so long as they don't trouble them.

The theme of the talks we gave to the villagers while on tour included an explanation of the new Government, in what ways it has not changed, the forthcoming census, the House of Chiefs, and identity certificates. Audience response was always polite and they seemed to agree with all that was said. I would have liked plenty of questions and arguments, but got none. I also tried to enquire more informally what they expected from Government in return for their taxes and so on, and again I got the impression that for the most part they were either content that Government knew what it was doing (why meddle in such celestial matters?) or content that progress should pass them by. No party posters or other signs of political activity were seen in the whole area.

The religion of the area is almost entirely Roman Catholic, and the schools here are run by the White Fathers. There is, however, no Mission in the whole of the Chief's country. Worship takes place in the houses, and very few churches were found; in one village an excellent new church has been built in the last few months in Kimberley brick and the old one is being turned into a cattle shed. There are a few Watchtower adherents in the vicinity of the Musumba and they too have a Kimberley brick church, close to the road. Some of the farmers are Watchtower, and have in the past allowed their religious convictions to play a part in their relations with the Agricultural Department and with the schools, but no such trouble is apparent now. The Administrative Secretary is a lone Seventh Day Adventist, and consequently does not work on Saturdays.

The touring party visited the "Ngulu shrine" near Chongo Chibimbi. This is a natural outcrop of granite rocks, about five in number, the largest of which measures some 35 feet in height and 50 feet in width and is so striking in its solitary grandeur and unexpected position that it naturally contains a powerful spirit. The spirit of the Ngulu is said to live in a python which guards the rocks and the spring which emanates from the base of them. I had read of this python from earlier reports but we saw no sign of him. This used to be the shrine of the Chief's hunting spirit, and had to be invoked before the Chief set out on a hunting expedition. Superstition with regard to it is dying fast; the villagers and ourselves climbed all over the rocks without thought of sacrilege and the present Chief often visits it as a tourist attraction.

Five exemption certificates were issued, no new identity certificates. A total of 64 guns were recorded in the two parishes, including 7 shotguns.

Comments on Annexure I above by the District Commissioner

This was Mr Bond's first village-to-village tour and he has clearly made the most of his opportunities.

As he says, the Lungu area of this District does not offer any very obvious channels of development but the Chief is a notable figure both locally and in the wider sphere of the House of Chiefs.

A. N.Mc Gregor

Chief Mukupa Kaoma is progressive and ambitious for the welfare of his people. He keeps himself well informed and is in close touch with what is going on in his area and in his people's minds. I shall not forget my first meeting with him when I found him working in the Administrative Secretary's office during the latter's absence and dealing most competently with the dayto- day administration. He is an easy person to work with, has definite opinions of his own, and deliberates carefully on all sides of a problem before making up his mind. He never seems to bully his staff or be overbearing towards his people, and obviously commands their affection and respect. He is to be congratulated on his recent election to the House of Chiefs, an honour which he undoubtedly deserves and a responsibility which he takes very seriously. Unfortunately the facilities are not readily at hand in his area to be equal to his high hopes, but one could not say that he would fail for want of trying. He became Chief in 1950 and, from what I can gather, has matured greatly in wisdom and experience since he took office.

The Administrative Secretary, Gracewell Sikazwe, is again a delightful personality, and runs the Native Authority with reasonable efficiency. He has not been in this District for many years, having spent most of his service under Senior Chief Tafuna in his home area. On tour he was competent and cheerful, but I was sometimes surprised to notice how unacquainted he was with the villages and the people. He has been on two training courses at Chalimbana and one at Mungwi, some time ago; he did reasonably well but not as well as perhaps he thinks. What he would like now is to go on a course to England (in place of the Chief who had similar hopes but has since postponed them), but perhaps what is needed is an assessment of his abilities at one of the new Mungwi courses.

Anthony Chipasha, who has been Treasury Clerk since 1956, is Standard VI but of not high material. He is slow and hard-working, but on a number of occasions has got himself into great difficulties with his accounts. At the end of the tour I inspected his books and his February Trial Balance, and after the necessary amendments they were found to be correct. The Native Treasury is poor, and is not helped by the fact that nobody at Mukupa Kaoma has a firm grasp of financial matters. It is a pity that the pleasant and friendly attitude which one finds among the staff cannot compensate for this unfortunate deficiency.

There remain the Kapasus, a smart and hard-working force. I was particularly impressed on tour with the new Head Kapasu who, though young, showed great authority and efficiency and was at all times helpful and thoughtful.

The Native Authority building programme has been going ahead well. The office block was built in 1961 and there are now nine staff houses, the last of which should be completed and inhabited this month. There is also a house for a Dispensary Assistant which is just ready for occupation. The Administrative Secretary is undoubtedly a good builder, whatever his other failings, and supervises the construction closely with the eye of an expert. Transport of materials and labour problems made progress last year rather slow, and the delay in the release of money from loans and grants was partly the cause for the Native Authority staff to exist for four months without salary, a hardship they endured with customary cheerfulness.

Tax collection is a more serious reason for the impecunious state of the Lungu Treasury. So often the excuse for low tax revenue is that the bulk of the taxpayers are on the Copperbelt and beyond the control of the home Treasury. With a few rough figures I should like to prove that this argument has no basis. Briefly, in the Lungu areas of Mukupa Kaoma and Chitoshi during 1962:- estimated taxable rate £1,205; amount received, £180 locally and about £600 from the Copperbelt (due allowance being made for those employed elsewhere); taxable population estimate, 980 local and 1,825 on the Copperbelt; conclusion, only 40% of those locally resident paid tax, while 55% of those on the Copperbelt paid tax! The political uncertainty last year and elections undoubtedly had their effect on tax collection, but if this effect was at all widespread it makes little difference to the disparity between these figures. Of course we here can do little about the other 45% on the Copperbelt but there is little excuse for collecting from only 40% within one's own area. Another reason for this position is, I feel, the easy-going attitude of the Native Authority staff, to which I have referred earlier. If they go without their salaries for failure to collect levy, that is principally their own affair, but failure to collect tax is a serious neglect of their duty to Central Government.

While on tour, about £30 was collected in tax and the same amount in levy. All of it was 1962 tax or even 1961's. There is thus no reason why in the current year, collecting for 1961, '62 and '63 plus a sizeable amount in late payments, they should not exceed their present estimates. This was pointed out to them and a careful watch will be kept on their collection figures. They must show they mean business, once the months of grace have expired, or they will lose their authority over the people - which in this respect is very low anyway at present. In two distant villages I visited almost all the taxpayers had deserted over the border into Chief Munkonge's area on our approach; the Native Authority had to be told to send back Kapasus the following week to collect defaulters. The Chief, however, takes a much firmer hand, and his recent tour in another parish may have spread rumours and had its effect on other tax defaulters.

The system adopted last year with many tax defaulters was to confiscate their bicycles, and the idea was to sell these later and recover tax from them. A dozen bicycles were found still in the lock-up. The disadvantage of this system is to deprive a man of one of the means of finding labour through which to pay his tax. Many people would gladly have served as carriers on tour, but they had no bicycles.

Comments on Annexure II above by the District Commissioner

I agree with Mr Bond's comments on the staff of this Native Authority which serves as the Headquarters for the two Lungu Chiefs.

The tax figures are worse than I had expected for, although until the end of 1962 the Chief was very loth to take vigorous action, there have been recent signs that he realises his Treasury's need for the revenue. His absence at two meetings of the House of Chiefs has since delayed things but I think we shall see considerable improvement in the months ahead. His staff very definitely need his driving force behind them before they can achieve much.

The seizure of bicycles is a difficult point and the Authority's legal powers in this matter have been explained to it in detail. This is one case in which the staff show no lack of enthusiasm! It may be as much the relative lowness of the pay offered as lack of bicycles which discouraged potential carriers, and it is for consideration whether the extra 3d per day should not be introduced in this District - a carrier's day is certainly a more strenuous one than the average road labourer's.


Chief Mukupa Kaoma has a Grade D Court with power to impose a maximum sentence of £15 fine or three months imprisonment. At present the Lungu native Rules and Orders give an alternative sentence in most cases, of £1 fine = one month or £5 = 3 months, but the Chief is considering putting forward an amendment to raise fines given, on the basis that if a labourer these days earns 3/- per day a month's imprisonment is equivalent to at least a £4 fine. A drawback to this plan was pointed out to him, that more people would opt for a prison sentence, since they have little money and would be as willing to work in prison as spend the time sitting at home with no work - and, besides, the conditions at Mporokoso prison are not unattractive (and at Milima are luxurious, I am told); consequently the Court might well lose an important part of its revenue.

Appeals go to the superior Court of Senior Chief Tafuna in Abercorn District. There have been no appeals recently, which perhaps indicates the fairness of judgements in the eyes of the people.

The Chief himself is clearly experienced and very well acquainted with the law, and hears most of the cases himself. This may be necessary at the moment, since his two Court Members are both new to the job, but under pressure of other commitments he is naturally anxious that they should cope with most of the work by themselves. The Court Members, Alexander Kombe and John Musonda, were appointed in January 1962 and January 1963 respectively. Their appearances (a cowboy and a prizefighter) do not do justice to their obvious potential abilities. They seem to command great respect and authority among the people, and they are both conscientious in studying the law.

The office of Court Clerk has also changed hands recently. Henry Chongo, son-in-law of the ex-Head Kapasu, took over in November 1962 and again is busy learning the law. Although on probation at present, the Chief has high hopes that he will gain sufficient experience in the next six months to be an asset to the Native Court. He is Standard VI and a former temporary Kapasu. At first acquaintance he appears conceited and insolent, but until I know him better I would say it is only a mannerism.

At the end of the tour the Court Clerk's books and case records were checked, and a number of skeletons in the cupboard were found, left over by his predecessor who was not famed for his accuracy or legibility. About 120 cases were heard in the Court during the last twelve months, with no prize for popularity going to any particular type. What was alarming was the number of outstanding fines:- 93 for a total of £109-6-6, the majority pending since 1962 and some being outstanding for well over a year. In its present financial state especially the Native Authority and Court cannot afford such inefficiency in the execution of justice, and the Court Clerk has been warned (though his predecessors may be more to blame) to take immediate steps to recover these fines. The trouble partly lies, I think, in the Court Room itself; the case records have shown no date by which the fine must be paid and on which the alternative of imprisonment will be imposed, and Court Members have now been advised to include this in their judgements so that firm action may be taken immediately the deadline is reached. In the last month or so this system has been observed, but it does not lessen the task of catching up on 1962 defaulters.

No cases were heard on tour, in spite of my encouragement to do so when an obvious instance presented itself. I was informed that, with regard to the normal offences one meets on tour, it was the custom for the Native Authority to tour all areas in April for tax collection and village hygiene inspection, and that villagers were given grace until the end of the rains to put their houses in order. I feel that on this subject, as on that of my previous paragraph, too much grace is given, and the Native Authority will suffer for its easy-going attitude.

Comments on Annexure III above bv the District Commissioner

The previous Court Clerk was ve/}' definitely at fault on the collection of fines and compensation outstanding. I had cause to bring this forcibly to his attention when going through the books with him and his successor at the end of last year. Several of the people concerned have left the District since fines were imposed but eve/}' effort will be made to collect the rest. Two men have recently been committed for contempt of Court in such cases and the Chief himself is well aware of what is needed.


The villages continue to practise shifting cultivation, and the staple produce is cassava, with maize and finger millet. Down in the valleys below the escarpment, where the soils seem more fertile, cassava matures in two or three years, but in some of the higher parts it was observed to take as long as four years sometimes. At this time of the year (early March) most of the villagers were engaged in fencing their gardens; some were already beginning to lop branches for October burning, which seemed a little early. In first year gardens we often saw sweet potatoes and cucumbers, and in a second year garden usually beans and groundnuts. Occasionally pumpkins were seen. Mushrooms are now out of season. I had the impression that the relish part of the diet was poor and not varied enough, but it is difficult to judge without closer study.

As the country lies at the headwaters of the rivers there is virtually no fish and, with lack of meat in many parts, this is a serious deficiency in the diet. Only in the lower Luangwa in the extreme north-west, outside the area toured, are fish caught. There have been several suggestions in the past for trading with the Tabwa for fish, but so far nothing has happened and it is difficult yet to know what to give the Tabwa in return. At the Musumba there are a number of small fish ponds which have been started under the encouragement of the Agricultural staff, but this is on too small a scale. The Chief has a larger fish pond, about one square mile of marsh near Vincent Bulaya, which is fed by a furrow. This has not been a great success yet as the first load of fish to be deposited there died on the journey, but with the help of the Agricultural Assistant he is still hopeful for better results this year.

The main development activity is concentrated around the Musumba and is under the general management of a quiet but most helpful Agricultural Assisitant and his Demonstrator. The Assistant has been here since 1959, and has a fine large house which is very much the envy of the Native Authority staff. Improved farming methods and the introduction of cash crops such as tobacco and coffee have been the achievements of the last few years. Tobacco is now in its third year. After a poor start, when the growers were discouraged by the return from their first attempts, the area under tobacco cultivation has risen from 2~ acres last year to about 9 acres this year. It is all the 'samsun' variety of Turkish tobacco. In all there are 21 growers, including the large individual farmers. At first the Agricultural Department gave the growers the seedlings and fertilizer ("V" solution containing plenty of nitrogen for the young plants), but as the growers become more successful they will have to pay for these items. The crop is harvested from April to June, baled and labelled on the spot after two weeks of drying and curing; the marketing problem is handled by the Department at present, who transport the bales to Lusaka for collection by the Salisbury manufacturers, but again it is hoped that in the near future the growers will be sufficiently prosperous and competent to carry on the marketing by themselves.

There is an excellent coffee nursery run by the Department with sufficient seedlings for the bedding of about 50 acres. As coffee needs a fair amount of mulching, napier grass is grown in the rotation system for this purpose. Here again the produce is marketed by the Department, but they plan to provide a small pulping plant at Mukupa Kaoma soon and buy the beans from the growers. Sites are being prepared for twenty small farms close to the nursery, of about four acres each, divided by windbreaks down the slope and served by a furrow along the contour. Three of these farms are already under cultivation, and a few more on the same pattern at nearby Kalimanshila. The finished farms will have an orchard and house plot (1'2 acre each), coffee and napier grass (1 acre each), and a final acre divided into six plots for crop rotation. Though this neat plan is the usual one, it is outside the previous experience of the small farmers and will require constant patience and instruction on the part of the Department to ensure its success. All round the Musumba methods of crop rotation are being introduced, on the five-year system of finger millet, tobacco, groundnuts, maize, and finally sun hemp (as green manure). As with tobacco, fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia) will be provided at low cost; the Agricultural Officer is going to experiment and demonstrate with one farmer, giving him the fertilizer free and encouraging others with the success of the first man. In this area it is essential to employ scientific methods and get away from the citemene system, since the population around the Musumba is already too high to be supported by the land available for wasteful citimene.

Villagers sometimes allow only eight years regeneration before re-cutting, unless dissuaded; just here there is scarcely enough land for this undesirable rate of felling, let alone for the more fastidious demands of the Forestry Department for at least 20 years of uninhibited growth. Generally this point is appreciated by the local inhabitants and response to scientific rotation is good, especially from the older men which is somewhat surprising. The Agricultural Department's policy is to persuade them to make the transition rather than compel them, and it has no doubts that by these means farming development will be achieved which will fit in with the general plans for improving the Musumba's environs.

There are three large farmers in the vicinity, each with about 12 acres. Two of them have been on a farmers' course at Mungwi for six months, and they all took up farming only a couple of years ago. They received the usual loan in kind to start their ventures - 4 oxen, 2 cows, 2 ploughs and labour for stumping the land - and are repaying in £12 per annum instalments. They too are growing cash crops but also go in for larger amounts of staple food produce on a rotation system. One of these, Philip Mukupa, has not been co-operating with the Department and his fertilizer loan has not been provided; he is not growing tobacco this year. Farms of this kind are large by Mporokoso District standards, and every encouragement should be made to interest others in similar enterprises, both for the agricultural development of this area and to alleviate the unemployment problem.

In the last two months a Local Farmers' Committee has been formed under the guidance of the Assistant and the chairmanship of the Administrative Secretary who takes a keen interest in agriculture. The various farmers with large or small interests have been divided into four groups which each send a representative to the committee. The committee's aims are to discuss new techniques and development in their own plots, but I hope that as they become more firmly established themselves they will give thought to the need for agricultural progress in other parts of the Chief's area than just in the vicinity of the Musumba.

A rainfall gauge has recently been installed, mainly for observation of the coffee's rain supply. In the last two calendar months 17 inches were recorded, compared with 24 inches at the Soma.

The figures for livestock in the area toured are as follows:

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

There is no tsetse fly in the Chief's area, and good natural grazing ground in many parts. I feel that villages particularly should be encouraged to breed and keep more livestock to supplement their own diet and as a possible source for local income. Cattle of course are expensive to obtain, but the problem should not be dismissed. On this point the Assistant said he hoped to introduce rotation grazing in the next year or two, to build up the number of sheep in the villages and on farms, and eventually to produce a butchery.

In conclusion it must be stressed that agriculture is the key to development in this poor area, and co-operation from all sections of the community must be given to the Agricultural Department staff who are doing a fine job. People are learning slowly by watching the success of a few. I should like to see more happening in the villages and hope that the Department's staff will be able to spread their influence there, once the initial hard work near the Musumba has established firm roots.

Comments on Annexure IV above bv the District Commissioner

The Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of African Agriculture on his recent visit expressed optimism for the future of both coffee and tobacco in the District. He paid a short visit to the Mukupa Kaoma sub-station. It is cheering to know that the older men are prepared to take advice on rotation, and I underline the touring officer's hope that the extension staff will be able to spend more time beyond their sub-station.


The area is not well covered by schools. There are only three in the whole of the Chief's area, two of which were visited during the tour. ' In the north the closing down of Pemba School, over the border in Chief Shibwalya Kapila's area, has not helped the situation. Further over to the north-west, in an area not visited this time, most of the children go to Sunkutu School in Chief Mporokoso's area. In the south, where there is a large child population, Mukupa Kaoma can obviously not cope with the number of applicants for Sub A level, and the children go to Chitoshi or Lubushi when they cannot find room at home.

At the Northern Province Education Authority's 17th meeting it was proposed that provision should be made in the five-year Primary Schools Development Plan for the upgrading of Mukupa Kaoma School, and that a Standard III class should be opened in 1965. This is certainly required as soon as possible. Equally urgent is the provision for another Lower Primary School to serve the border areas of Mukupa Kaoma and Chitoshi, and Mutoba Kaibele has been put forward as a suggested site, in Chitoshi's area. In the area toured there were 1,319 children resident, excluding those at school in other areas, perhaps equivalent to some 600 of Primary School age; there are 440 school places at home, of which not a few are taken by children from outside the area as will be seen. Thus, given the possible inaccuracy of my statistics, a third of the children go without education of any kind.

Vincent Bulaya:-

This is an Upper and Lower Primary School in the north of Mukupa Kaoma's area, only five miles from the border with Bemba country. It is run by the White Fathers and comes within the circuit of the Manager of Schools at Kapatu Mission. There is one Headteacher, Mr.Ndakala, in charge of both parts of the school, but he finds that he does not have enough opportunity for proper supervision of the Lower School, and in the foreseeable future the schools may be run separately under two Headteachers. Topographically, however, the two sections form one unit, sited in a rough circle with a diameter of only 200 yards between the Upper and Lower buildings. There is a staff of eight, including one female teacher, and all appear to be quite satisfactory. Father Bedard visits the school frequently, mainly to supervise the building programme, and the new Provincial Education Officer visited it only a week before my tour.

The roll and attendance statistics are as follows:

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

Standard V and VI boys living more than a mile from the school automatically become full boarders. On the day I visited the school, the grounds were littered with the senior boys with their books, swotting hard for the Secondary School selection examination which was to take place the following week. There are no Standard V or VI girls, it will be noticed; they go from here to Chilubula Mission School in Kasama District (also White Fathers'). The standard of education in the school is high, and well above the Provincial average, as shown by these 1962 Standard VI results:-

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

From here the majority of the boys (97% in 1962) go on to the Secondary School of St.Francis, Malole, in Kasama District. The feeder schools for Vincent Bulaya Upper School, apart from its own Lower Primary School, are Mukupa Kaoma and Chewe. A second intake at Standard V comes in from Kapatu and Kalabwe Mission Schools which both go as far as Standard IV. Apart from Chewe, these schools are all about 30 miles away. In the current school year there were more than 80 applicants for Sub A, so that half the local children are deprived of education from the very start.

A heavy building programme has been going on in the last year, and has nearly been completed:

1 x 2-classroom block: needs only furniture for the teachers;
2 teachers' houses: one needs doors, the other only to be painted;
1 dormitory for 20 children: needs paint only;
1 store room: needs doors, windows and whitewash.

All these buildings were inspected and I found a good job has been made of them all. The White Fathers have not stinted where a little extra money would provide better results, but they are running into a little financial difficulty in this final phase. One of the teachers is a trades instructor and has closely supervised the actual construction; both he and the boys seem naturally very proud of their new buildings. It is hoped that the next stage in the programme will be the demolition of the old thatched classroom block in the Upper Primary School, once they can move into the new one; in its place or just behind will then, perhaps, be built a dining room block with a kitchen attached. Vincent Bulaya is always a joy to visit. The site is good (though too close to the village, but the Chief wants the village to move soon), the staff are very helpful and co-operative, and there always seems to be some activity going on. Sports include the usual items: football and athletics twice a week, stoolball, volleyball, netball and rounders. Football fixtures with other schools present the usual problems of lack of transport; if the senior boys had not been studying hard when we visited the school I should have liked to challenge them to a match against the touring party - any fixture would be most gratefully received. They have a Scout troop, too, of about 32 (not enough girls to form Guides), but they lack the leadership to be a first class troop at the moment. We met their patrol leaders at their camp near Mporokoso last October. Their religious society, the Saverian Movement, though less practical in application, is an indoor equivalent to scouting in its aims and is well supported.

The Headteacher is very proud of their combined debating society and drama group, and in spite of obvious lack of amenities for the latter section, these activities are also enthusiastically supported. I should like to see them in action, in either capacity. The school is most fortunate in having a well-stocked library, containing 608 books on subjects of every variety. These books are bought by the White Fathers on a £5 per annum grant - a system which, with the present appetite for anything in print, must give the advantage to their schoolchildren in competition with others. The children themselves run the library, under the direction of an assistant teacher.

On the ground sloping down to the river the school has a fine garden and orchard. This again is entirely managed and worked by the boys; they sell their produce of cassava or vegetables to the teachers and the rest goes to the school for their own maintenance. The orchard is quite large, and full of bananas, oranges, lemons, guavas, mangoes and so forth,

Mukupa Kaoma:-

After Vincent Bulaya, this school is a bit of a disappointment. It is a Lower Primary School only, run by the White Fathers from Lubushi. The Headteacher indicated that he would appreciate more frequent and regular visits from the Manager of Schools. The usual statistics are:-

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

This is a feeder school for Chitoshi and secondarily Vincent Bulaya, both 28 miles away. Last year 24 children passed their Standard II but only 14 of these were able to find places at the other schools and the rest had to return to their villages. They had over 100 applicants for Sub A this year, which meant turning away three-fifths. These facts speak for themselves and, I hope, in support of the upgrading of the school.

The staff consists of the Headteacher and his Assistant, of Standard VI and V respectively and both studying for higher qualifications themselves. There is also a female Assistant Teacher. As is generally found in schools of this grade, the teaching day is divided between work with the upper two and lower two standards, and the teachers do their best in the circumstances to keep the children well occupied when not in the classroom.

The buildings consist of one old-type classroom block, two teachers' houses and several dormitories. The classroom block is re-thatched every year, but the walls and primitive desks are in bad condition; their maintenance is a Native Authority responsibility, but the Administrative Secretary seems more inclined to find fault with the original construction than to make the necessary repairs. The teachers' houses, in permanent materials, were built in 1958; for some reason they still have no internal doors, and the Headteacher is at last thinking of getting help from learner carpenters at the nearby Rural Development Extension Team. The dormitories are small pole-and-dagga huts that have to be destroyed and rebuilt each year. After a year they accumulate ticks and bed-bugs, but the Provincial Medical Officer has said that this is the school's affair. If this is not due to poor hygiene methods, the problem will not be solved until a dormitory block is built in permanent materials. It is encouraging to note that the parents have already burnt the bricks and provided the timber to start on such a venture, and again carpentry and semi-skilled labour may be available from the extension team; all that is needed are the other materials. Watchtower and local politicians did cause trouble in 1960 and 1961, but no interference is felt now.

There is a small orchard and garden, and a fish pond that is well stocked. The teachers keep rabbits, which are breeding furiously.

Comments on Annexure V above by the District Commissioner

The Lungu area has suffered from being on the fringe of various Missions' spheres of influence. Kapatu, Lubushi and Luwingu are all stations of the White Fathers, some 60, 53 and 60 miles respectively from the Musumba, but they have all tended to concentrate upon the Bemba on their doorsteps. But the position is improving. Munshimbwe in the north-west corner of the Chief's area is due to open as SubA this year and Mutoba Kaibele is on the District list though no date can be given for its opening. Once Mukupa Kaoma School is upgraded the Lungu will have three schools providing Standards III and IV The Administrative Secretary is a lively member of the District Education Authority and can be relied on to ensure that the interests of this area are not overlooked.

A. N. MacGregor

Enough has already been said on agricultural development, which must remain the lynch-pin of overall development here. All other plans are, rightly, concentrated on Mukupa Kaoma Musumba.

For some years there have been vague ideas for the construction of a proper neatly laid-out township at the Musumba, and the Chief has kept a close eye on the erection of permanent or semi-permanent buildings so that their sites fit into the general plan. Permanent buildings are for the most part Native Authority staff houses, the offices, and public amenities such as a tea-room, bottle store, market and new dispensary. There is a line of stores and private houses built on a self-help basis with the aid and encouragement of the extension team. Township Rules have been drawn up and submitted to the Governor for his approval.

The extension team under Duncan Banda is a great asset. It is doing good work in spite of the uphill grind of trying to keep the interest of the local population - particularly difficult during the rains. The annual report of the Community Development Officer, Mungwi, spoke most favourably of the group and he is considering its upgrading to a community development sub-centre. Carpentry classes are going well, and some bricklayers and carpenters have been sent on courses to Mungwi. The staff are being encouraged to minimise their dependence on Mungwi as a parent body and, as they become more firmly established, to make their present site a base for development work in the field throughout this Lungu area. Difficulties were encountered at first in the self-help housing scheme as some private jealousies affected mutual co-operation, but the aims are now understood and successful results have begun to unite the people in a working spirit. It is hoped to build a Community Development Assistant's house in the near future.

The Chief envisages his Musumba as an attraction to traders and that the proposed township will be the next stage in the progress towards economic take-off. One cannot but admire his enthusiasm and ambition, but there are too many difficulties. Communications and the new road to Chikwekwe are dealt with elsewhere (Annexure VII). Trade is at present negligible. There are exceptionally few stores in his area - 5 at the Musumba and only 9 in other parts - all of very low standard; none of them ever had anything I wanted, but I am not judging them by this criterion alone! The basic need is for a wider circulation of money, for at present there is insufficient money in the villages to make any general trading store a going concern.

With regard to traders from outside there is nothing to attract them except in the local agricultural produce. One cannot base a local economy entirely on tobacco and coffee, and thought should be given to the export of groundnuts also, which could be grown on a larger scale and for which I am told there is a market as close as Kasama. Livestock could also be considered in the same context. The Kasama Marketing Union did come here last year to buy local produce but the villagers, unaccustomed to sales, expected a fortune at their first attempt and refused the reasonable buying prices of the Union. I noticed this myself on tour, that they had no experience of outside price values. If the people of the Musumba area could concentrate on cash crops for sale outside the area this might help; as this area is too heavily populated for citemene (see Annexure X) staple foods could be bought from the outlying villages. This at least would circulate money from outside through the Musumba to the villages (and back to the Native Treasury in tax!); but the prospects are not good.

The only other ideas put forward in the recent past have been the sale of work from the women's welfare and home-craft section of the extension team's activities, and furniture. There is not likely to be much market for the woollen garments and the output would be minimal, but it is better than nothing and anyway the women should be encouraged in these affairs as much for their education as for trade. There are insufficient sawyers and carpenters in the area for furniture or any other product of timber at the moment, but it is of course hoped that the extension team will improve this situation. Again there remains the problem of finding an outside market. On tour I noticed that the area, being at the headwaters of many rivers, is very rich in mishitu in which there appears to be plenty of excellent timber. Although these must of course be rigorously protected, I feel that there may be possibilities for controlled exploitation of their resources if closely supervised by the Forestry Department. Transport difficulties would not be great as the main road along the watershed is within easy reach of the mishitu.

The bottle store, market and tea-room are not very successful. There is not enough money to provide them with custom and the bottle store has only been used once since it was a polling station for the elections in December.

This area is served by one spinal road running north-south to link the Mporokoso-Kasama and Luwingu-Kasama roads. It also serves as a shortcut between Luwingu and Abercorn and between the two divisions of Lungu territory. It is a very well-built District road, following the line of the watershed all the way, and needs very little maintenance. An all-weather road, it has survived the rains better than any other in the District, owing to its good siting and lack of traffic. Two cul-de-sacs leading off it are Native Authority responsibilities: the two miles to Vincent Bulaya and the three miles to Mukupa Kaoma. The 15-mile road to Chewe School has not yet been gazetted. Two culverts on the main District road were repaired at the end of the tour, with local labour. They need only more ballast.

Village paths were all in good condition, and here again the Chief insists on a high standard. Rains have naturally taken their toll on a number of bridges and these will be rebuilt in April. There is a fair amount of cycle traffic (traders and others) between Mukupa Kaoma and Kapatu and Shibwalya Kapila, and also southwards from Mukupa Kaoma to the Lubushi vicinity.

The Central African Road Services (CARS) bus runs twice a week in each direction between Kasama-Kapatu-Mukupa Kaoma-Chitoshi-Luwingu. It carries little traffic. In 1960 a service was started between Abercorn and Luwingu, but last year owing to lack of custom this service was suspended and passengers travel via Kasama. Mukupa Kaoma has no postal service, although the bus calls there. There is a private bag at Chitoshi, and a Kapasu has to be sent there every week to collect and deliver. The Native Authority clearly needs a second private bag at the Musumba and this is included in this year's estimates.

For many years it has been proposed to build a road from the Musumba to Chikwekwe in Chitoshi's area, where there is already a road leading to the main Luwingu-Kasama thoroughfare. This will shorten the route to Kasama by nearly 30 miles and is primarily deSigned to encourage trade. It is planned for 1964, and the touring party considered the general line of the new road and the possible siting of the two bridges needed.

The general health in the villages toured is good. The number of cases of total blindness in the area could not have been more than half-a-dozen, and only two lepers were noted, both of whom had been treated at Kabalenge in Kawambwa District. Instances of malnutrition or protein defiCiency among the children were minimal, which was surprising in view of one of my comments in Annexure IV. There have been no known cases of smallpox since 1958.

Two outbreaks of measles were encountered during the tour. At one village we found all the children present were suffering from it and had been treated with local muti; three had died. I was shown with some pride by an old matriarch how she had soaked kangwa leaves and applied the solution to the eyes and into all the orifices of the body. Though ignorant of the properties of the kangwa, I could see the effect on the children: one was already half-blind and was sent to Luwingu immediately, and all the others were badly affected in their eyes. The local medicine-man still very much exists; some charge fees and are therefore thought more skilled.

Hygiene in the villages was generally good, and the Chief is keen on a high standard in this. Every house and latrine was inspected by a Kapasu and notes were made. I have already indicated (in Annexure Ill) that, on occasions when hygiene was obviously below standard, no action was taken apart from a reprimand and the matter was left for future inspection. The new Dispensary at Mukupa Kaoma is almost complete and only needs plastering and painting. The Native Authority received a grant of £200 from the Provincial Native Treasuries Fund for roofing the building. All the labour on this project has been voluntary, and has been provided either by learners from the nearby Rural Development extension team or by villagers - brick-burning, bricklaying and carpentry. The Administrative Secretary is planning the finishing touch which will be a 10'x16' kitchen behind. A dispensary has long been needed in this area where the nearest medical services are either at Luwingu (63 miles) or Mporokoso (72 miles). The Provincial Medical Officer has approved in principle the posting of an Assistant to Mukupa Kaoma, and a house has just been completed for him. The Native Authority has a drug box which contains only bandages, plaster, iodine and Epsom salts. One Kapasu has been trained as an itinerant Medical Orderly but is very unsatisfactory. A more useful person is the new Court Member, John Musonda, who has been training and working for 14 years as a medical orderly in Tanganyika and S.Rhodesia, is qualified to give injections and might be of some assistance in the new Dispensary.

Comments on Annexure VIII above by the District Commissioner

The matriarch mentioned in the second paragraph would presumably be liable to prosecution under Section 16 of the Blind Persons Ordinance, but education is clearly the best way of dealing with such practices. It is hoped that the Provincial Information Officer will run a campaign later in the year, to follow up a previous campaign of 1960 and to promote the work of the Mporokoso Blind School.

The Provincial Medical Officer has regretfully announced his inability to staff the new Dispensary in the next financial year. The Native Authority plans, however, to employ a man who resigned from the Territorial se Nice rather than be transferred to Federal terms, and the PMO has agreed to give him refresher training. Once the Dispensary is complete, a Special Warrant will be submitted to cover this unforeseen commitment. The new Dispensary will meet a long-felt need.


Annexure IX; GAME
Hardly any game was seen during the tour. However, there was reported to be a lot in the extreme south-east of the area, which perhaps accounts for the reluctance of small villages there to move to otherwise preferable sites. Lions frequent the central area and one village had to move because of their incursions. Monkeys are a nuisance around the gardens in certain parts, and numerous traps for them were seen, as well as small camp sites for the more systematic drives against them.

There is an abundance of game in the uninhabited western part of the Chief's area, outside the area toured, by the headwaters of the Kalungwishi and opposite Kawambwa District. The Chief was keen that this area should be demarcated as a Game Reserve and, after discussions in the full Lungu Council at Abercorn, the idea was put to the Game Dapartment. I understand that the Department considered that it would have to be run by the Native Authority as their own affair and, since they had no funds to maintain the necessary staff, the idea was temporarily dropped. The Chief is still very keen on this matter, remembering how well stocked his whole area was in his not so distant youth, and would welcome an opening for fresh discussions on the topic.

Comments on Annexure IX above by the District Commissioner

I am paSSing a copy of this Annexure to the Game Officer, Mporokoso, and the possibility of a Private Game Area will be discussed with him. The Native Treasury is certainly in no position to provide funds at present but future developments may make it possible to employ some Game Kapasus. It would be unfortunate if the Chief's enthusiasm were frustrated for this reason alone.

The population of Chief Mukupa Kaoma's area is concentrated in the extreme north along the tributaries of the Luangwa and in the south-east in the upper basin of the Lukulu. As a whole, this is the most thinly populated of the Chiefs' areas in Mporokoso District, with 3.7 persons per square mile; but within a four mile radius of the Musumba there was found to be a resident population of about 700. That is 14 persons per square mile. The centre and west are entirely uninhabited, so that a natural population division can be made between the Luangwa and Lukulu sections.

The statistics for the two parishes visited are attached; a reasonably accurate assessment of the resident population has been attempted. A half of the taxable males are working on the Copperbelt, and Chingola hits the top of the popularity poll. It is noticeable, as always, that each village has connections with one particular urban centre and most of its men will go there to seek work. As expected, the figures for the Congo and Tanganyika have completely slumped; this Lungu area has always had more connections with Tanganyika for employment (probably due to tribal history) while the Bemba of the District have favoured the Congo for similar ancestral reasons.

Most villages have moved site since the area was last toured, and one had even moved into Chief Chitoshi's area. There is a general trend noticeable for the people in the south-east to move out of their present area over the border into Chitoshi's or Munkonge's areas where trade and communications are much better. The Chief recognises this but is not unduly perturbed; he is senior to Chitoshi in rank and regards them as still in "his Lungu area". Emigrants to Munkonge are beyond his control.

In spite of the increase in houses of semi-permanent materials villages will continue to move too often for them to be accurately sited on a map. However, for present information a map is attached.

The forthcoming census and its aims were explained to every village. A few villages are too small in total population, let alone in the number of taxable males resident. The Chief rightly favours amalgamation in these cases, and in general is keen to concentrate the people into fewer and larger villages for administrative reasons. But he will take no autocratic step against the wishes of the villagers, and is finding it hard to persuade them to his views.

From Northern Rhodesia to Zambia: Recollections of a DO/DC 1962-73

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