Seventeenth Century Timeline of British Empire

1600Irish Rebellion, East India Company formedEssex Rebellion against Elizabeth I, Population of England estimated at 5 millionBattle of Sekigahara, JapanShakespeare's Henry VGiordano Bruno burnt for theory of Universe
1601Small Spanish force arrives in Ireland, Montjoy attempts to suppress Irish Rebellion, James Lancaster sets off on first East India Company voyage (returns 1603), Elizabeth I's 'Golden Speech', Abolition of MonopoliesDutch navigator, Olivier van Noort, returns after circumnavigating the world (begun 1598)Shakespeare's Troilus and CressidaKepler becomes astronomer to Emperor Rudolf II
1602Bartolomew Gosnold explores 'New England', Lancaster's fleet welcomed as trading alternative to Portuguese, Spanish and Irish rebel forces defeated at Kinsala
James Lancaster and the Red Dragon
James Lancaster and the Red Dragon
United Dutch East India Company incorporated, War between Turkey and Persia (until 1627)Bodleian library openedGallileo investigates gravitation and oscillation
1603Bantam established, Lancaster returns and sells pepper at huge profitJames VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, Sir Walter Raleigh arrestedTokugawa Shogunate established in Japan, West African Bornu leader, Idris Aloma, dies, Samuel de Champlain and Francois du Pontgrave explore the Saguenay and St. Lawrence RiversShakespeare's HamletAcquapendente discovers valves in veins
1604Anglo-Spanish Peace Treaty, Commercial Treaty between England and FranceFirst Parliament of James ISpanish capture Ostend from Dutch, Samuel de Champlain explores Atlantic coast of North America from Maine to Cape CodMeasure for Measure and Othello publishedKepler publishes 'Optics'
William Adams with Dutch Fleet
William Adams with Dutch Fleet
Gunpowder PlotWilliam Adams becomes adviser to Japanese Shogun, Dutch colony established in Japan, Mughal Emperor Akbar diesKing Lear
The Tempest
1606Banda Islands Occupied, Plymouth Company ships scout Maine and New England, London Company ships scout VirginiaKing James I proposes new National Flag to symbolise the joining of the Scottish and English Crowns in one personPortuguese drive off Dutch from Malacca, Dutch ships land at Cape Keerweer in AustraliaBen Jonson's Volpone, Macbeth Galileo invents Proportional Compass
1607Popham Colony established, Virginia Colony established, Flight of the Earls from Ireland, Henry Hudson sets out for find NW Passage to ChinaA formal Union between Scotland and England is rejected by English ParliamentFrench colonists abandon Champlain's settlement from 1604First OperasJohn Norden writes 'The Surveyor's Dialogue' a manual for surveying
1608Popham Colony abandoned, Virginia Colony reinforced - Chesapeake mapped by Captain Smith, Ulster Plantations, Henry Hudson searches Barents sea looking for NE Passage, The Hector is the first EIC ship to reach India - a trading concession is granted from Mughal Emperor
Union Flag
King James' Union Flag
Quebec settlements established by FrenchCoriolanus
Champlain establishes Settlement at Quebec
French at Quebec
1609Bermuda shipwreck, Ulster Plantations, Henry Hudson's third voyage to New England and the Hudson River
Bermuda, 1609
Bermuda, 1609
Dutch Republic recognised, French clash with Five Nations Iroquois, Dutch establish trading factory at Hirado in Japan, Tea arrives by ship in Europe for first timeShakespeare's SonnetsGalileo's telescope, Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
1610Ulster Plantations, Virginia Colony abandoned but restarted when fresh supplies and settlers meet the fleeing colonists, Hudson's fourth voyage to search for NW Passage - reaches Hudson's BayJames I prorogues Parliament, Parliament later reassemblesLouis XIII becomes King of FranceCaravaggio diesGallileo views moons of Jupiter with telescope
1611Hudson marooned by mutineers at James Bay, Muscovy Company sends out first whaling shipDissolution of Parliament by James IDanes declare war on SwedenAuthorised version of King James Bible published, The Tempest, The History of the World by Sir Walter Raleigh
Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
1612Surat Factory established, Bermuda colony established, Tobacco grown in Virginia Colony
John Smith's Map of Virginia
John Smith's Map of Virginia
Japanese begin persecuting Christians, Dutch sign Treaty with King of Kandy in Ceylon, Dutch establish fur trading fort at ManhattanJohn Smith publishes his Map of Virginia, Samuel Purchas publishes Hakluytus Posthumus about his travelsBartholomew Pitiscus uses decimal point in his trigonometrical tables
1613Hirado factory established in Japan, English colonists in Virginia destroy French settlement, Port Royal, in Nova Scotia and prevent French colony being established in Maryland, Belfast IncorporatedPrincess Elizabeth marries Elector Palatine whose Protestant zeal enmeshes England into Continental political intrigue, Globe Theatre burns downRomanov dynasty established in Russia, Turks invade Hungary, Champlain explore Ottawa River to Alumette IslandHenry VIII by ShakespeareHugh Myddleton constructs 'New River' cut to bring water to London
1614Bermuda becomes Colony, John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, Virginia settlers resist French settlement attempts at Maine and Nova ScotiaJames I's Second Parliament 'The Addled Parliament' meets but refuses to discuss finance and so is dissolvedDutch traders found Fort Nassau at Albany on the River Hudson, Danish East India Company is founded, Cornelius Jacobsen Mey explores Lower Delaware
Pocahontas and Son
Pocahontas and Son
Napier's Logarithms
1615English ships defeat Portuguese fleet off Bombay in dispute over Trading RightsLady Arbella Stuart (with her own claim to the English throne) dies as a prisoner in Tower of LondonDrinking Chocolate arrives in Europe from the New World, Dutch seize the Moluccas from Portuguese, Champlain discovers Lake HuronCervantes' Don Quixote, George Chapman completes translation of Homer's 'Odyssey'Galileo faces Inquisition for first time
1616Banda Islands reoccupied, William Baffin discovers Baffin Bay whilst searching for North West Passage James I starts process of selling peerages to raise moneyJapan ejects European Missionaries, William Adams sails from Japan to Siam on trading expedition, War between Venice and Austria, Dutch round Cape Horn for first timeDeath of William ShakespeareWillebrord Snellius discovers the law of refraction
1617 Sir Walter Raleigh released from custody and begins voyage to find 'El Dorado', Smallpox epidemic sweeps through New England reducing Indian population to barely 1,000, Pocahontas dies of Smallpox in EnglandJames I returns to Scotland and addresses Scottish ParliamentRussia and Sweden end warBen Jonson becomes Poet LaureateWillebrord Snellius establishes use of trigonometrical triangulation for cartography
1618 Sir Walter Raleigh returns to England empty handed and is executedFrancis Bacon Lord ChancellorDutch West Africa Company founded, Thirty Years War begins
Dutch West Africa Company
Dutch West Africa Company
Kepler establishes third law of planetary motion
1619First slaves arrive in Virginia carried by a Dutch privateer, 90 English women arrive in Jamestown, First representative colonial assembly in America at Jamestown under Governor Sir George Yeardley
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Inigo Jones' Banqueting House
Cvil War in France, Protestants besiege Vienna before withdrawingInigo Jones designs the Banqueting HouseWilliam Harvey announces his discovery of the circulation of blood
1620Pilgrim Fathers to Massachusetts, Mayflower Compact, John Carver first governor of Plymouth Colony
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Departure of the 'Mayflower'
Battle of the White Mountain near Prague sees Catholic League defeat King Frederick of BohemiaImperial Palace of Katsura in Kyoto is completedFrancis Bacon's Novum Organum Scientiarum, Edmund Gunter's Canon triangulorum - treatise on logarithms, Cornelius Droebbel tests a prototype of a submarine in the Thames
1621Sir Francis Wyatt arrives as a new governor in Virginia with new regulations for its organisation, Banda Islands abandoned, Formal attempts to colonise Nova Scotia and NewfoundlandParliament impeaches Francis Bacon but he is pardoned by James IPhilip IV King of Spain, Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII, War between Holland and Spain restarts, Dutch West India Company chartered and takes possession of Holland's American claimsVan Dyck's Rest on the Flight into Egypt, Rubens' Portrait of his son, NicholasKepler's work banned by Catholic Church
1622Ferdinando Gorges receives grant of land to Maine in North America, Persians with help from the English East India Company drive Portuguese from Hormuz (William Baffin dies as a result of this action), William Bradford becomes governor of PlymouthJames I dissolves ParliamentPersian Forces take Kandahar from Mughals, Battle of WieslochRubens' The Medici CycleFrancis Bacon's Historia Naturalis et Experimentalis, Edmund Gunter discovers magnetic variation of compasses based on location
1623Hirado factory abandoned in Japan, St Christopher established, Dutch massacre English at Amboina and eject English East India Company from Spice IslandsSir Edward Conway made Secretary of StatePersia conquers Baghdad, New Netherlands recognised as Dutch colony in North AmericaFirst Folio of Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Torture of English at Amboina
1624 England and Spain go to War (until 1630), Virginia Company dissolved and becomes Crown Colony, First English settlement in Eastern IndiaMonopolies declared illegal, James calls last ParliamentJapan expels all Spanish traders, Dutch seize Bahia in BrazilCaptain John Smith publishes The General History of VirginiaHenry Briggs' Arithmetica logarithmica, Johannes Baptista van Helmont cons term 'gas' for compressible liquid
1625Colonial Office created in London, Barbados, St. Kitts and Nevis claimed as an English colony, Tobacco tax and tobacco monopoly establishedCharles I succeeds throne and marries Henrietta MariaFrench claim Antilles and Cayenne, Spanish capture Breda from DutchDaniel Mylens made court painter by Charles I
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
1626George Sandys makes first translation of a classic in America - Ovid's MetamorphosesKing sells titles to raise moneyDutch buy Manhattan from Wappiner Confederacy, French settle in Madagascar, First French settlement in Senegal, French 'Company for the Islands of America' IncorporatedRembrandt van Rijn's Baptism of the Eunuch, John Donne's Five SermonsSantorio Santorio measures human temperature with a thermometre for the first time
Chartered Company Spheres, c1625
Chartered Company Spheres, c1625
War between England, Scotland and France, Charles I grants charter to the Guiana Company, English fleet sails to help Huguenots at La Rochelle but fails to relieve themKorea becames vassal state of China, Reykjavik attacked by Pirates, Company of the Hundred Associates established in France - given control of New France and monopoly of fur trade from Arctic to Florida, Swedish South Seas Company foundedRembrandt's The Money ChangerKepler compiles Rudolphine Tables which explained location of 1005 fixed stars
1628Salem is founded on Massachusetts BayDuke of Buckingham murdered as he prepares to relieve La RochelleDutch take Java, La Rochelle surrenders - Huguenots cease to be an armed power in FrancePoussin's Mars and Venus, Taj Mahal constructedWilliam Harvey's Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis, First harbour with sluices constructed at Le Havre
1629 Edwin Sandys becomes governor of Virginia, Peace of Susa resolves war between England, Scotland and France, Quebec and Cape Breton captured by English/Scots but returned under terms of Peace of Susa, Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason establish New HampshireCharles dissolves Parliament - it does not meet again until 1640Portuguese plant the first America crops in Africa - Cassava and Maize, Peace of Lubeck, Truce of AltmarkVan Dyck's Rinaldo and ArmidaAlbert Gerard introduces brackets and other abbreviations into mathematical notations for the first time
1630Portsmouth is founded in New Hampshire, John Winthrop arrives in Salem, Boston is founded and Massachusetts Bay becomes a Colony, Treaty of Madrid between England and FrancePirates begin to settle in Tortuga and use as a base of operationsGregorio Allegri's Miserere, Cribbage invented by Sir John SucklingKepler dies
1631Leeward Islands established, Boston opens first shipyard, Blessing of the Bay is the first ship built in Massachusetts
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
17th Century Coffee House
Dutch West India Company founds settlement at the Delaware River, Peter Minuit is recalled by Dutch authorities from Nieuw Amsterdam for corruption and excessive concentration of power, Battle of Breitenfield breaks power of Catholicism in Central EuropeRembrandt's Portrait of his Mother, John Donne diesWilliam Oughtred proposes using the symbol 'X' for multiplication
1632Charles I issues charter for Maryland named for his wife Queen Henrietta Maria and under the control of Lord Baltimore, Antigua and Montserrat settledFirst coffee shop opens in London, Sir Francis Windebank made chief Secretary of StateFrench establish Acadia at Nova Scotia, Gustavus wins victories at Nuremberg and Lutzen but is killed in action, Portuguese driven out of BengalVan Dyck made court painter to Charles I, John Milton's On His Having Arrived at the Age of Twenty-ThreeGalileo restates his belief in the Copernican system with the publication of Dialogo de Massimi Sistemi del Mondo
1633English trading post established in Bengal, Edward Winslow becomes Governor of Plymouth ColonyWilliam Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, Royal Scots the oldest regular regiment are established, Trial of Lancashire witchesJapanese persecution of Christians intensifies, Dutch settle in Connecticut Galileo forced by Catholic Church to retract his defence of the Copernican model
1634Lord Calvert arrives in Maryland to establish settlement for both Catholics and Protestants, The English establish a settlement at Cochin In England, Oxford University Press receives a charterTulipmania reaches hysterical heights in Amsterdam, Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan and Wisconsin in search of the elusive North West Passage, Russo-Polish War ends, Cura'ao is captured by the DutchJohn Milton's Comus
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Jean Nicolet in Wisconsin
1635Connecticut begins to be settled by English, Council of New England dissolved, The Great Colonial Hurricane hit the Virginia Colony at Jamestown and the Massachusetts Bay Colony Guadeloupe and Martinique are colonized by France, Dominica claimed by French, Dutch invade and occupy Northern Brazil, Dutch Delaware settlements destroyed by Indians, Dutch occupy Formosa, France declares war on Spain, Portuguese ships banned from JapanVan Dyck's Charles I, Rubens'Apotheosis of James I on the ceiling of WhitehallWorld's first free medical clinic opened in Paris by Theophraste Renaudot, Willem and Joan Blaeu publish the first edition of their Atlas Novus in Amsterdam.
1636Roger Williams founds Rhode Island
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Harvard College, 1636
Dutch settle in Ceylon, Japanese Shogun bans all foreign travel, Franco-Spanish War continues, Tea available in Paris for the first timeCharles I Triptych by Van Dyck, Pierre Corneille's play, Le CidHarvard College founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts
1637Massachusetts colonists have first hostile encounter with Indians with incident known as Hankins' Scissors resulting in the Pequot War. English emigration to New Word restricted by royal proclamation, English traders establish themselves at Canton, Ferdinando Gorges given title to Massachusetts after court battleWilliam Prynne, Puritan Parliamentarian condemned to be pilloried and mutinied for seditious writingCommercial collapse of Dutch tulip trade, Dutch take Elmina fort from Portuguese and establish more forts on Gold Coast to ensure supply of slaves to New World, New Sweden Company incorporated to establish colonies in the New World, French traders set up fort at mouth of Senegal River, Japanese prohibited from all European contact except very limited Dutch trade through Hirado Ben Jonson diesDescartes' Geometrie
1638Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts and settles in Rhode Island, Treaty of Hartford ends the Pequot WarScottish Covenant drawn up and signed, Charles abandons liturgy and canon in Scotland, Torture abolished in EnglandSwedish settle on Delaware River, Ottomans reconquer Baghdad from Persians, Dutch arrive on Mauritius, Kandyan Treaty signed between the Singhalese and Dutch to rid Ceylon of the PortugueseMonteverdis' Eighth book of Madrigals, Rubens' The Three Graces, Covent Garden by Inigo JonesGalileo's Mathematical Discourses, Dutch on Mauritius start clubbing Dodos into extinction
1639English settle at Madras, First printing press in North America at Cambridge, Connecticut's Constitution adopted, The Barbados House of Assembly meets for the first timeFirst Bishop's War in Scotland
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Fort St. George, Madras
Gerard Desargues publishes book on modern geometry, Jeremiah Horrocks observes transit of Venus, Quinine used for medicinal purposes for first time
1640First book, Bay Psalm Book, published in North AmericaSecond Bishop's War, Short Parliament and Long ParliamentPortugal regains independence from SpainPeter Paul Rubens diesCoke made from coal for the first time
1641Massacre of Ulster Protestants by Catholics, General Court of Massachusetts Bay Company codifies 100 lawsCotton Goods begin to be manufactured in Manchester, William Laud sent to Tower of London, King Charles I of England gives his assent to the Triennial Act, reluctantly committing himself to parliamentary sessions of at least fifty days every three years, English law makes witchcraft a capital crimePortugal is ousted from Malacca by the Dutch, French settle in Michigan, Tsar bans sale of tobacco, Dutch moved from Hirado to Nagasaki, Portugal and the Dutch Republic sign a Treaty of Offensive and Defensive Alliance but it is ignored by both sidesVan Dyck diesRen' Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy
1642Sir William Berkeley becomes Governor of VirginiaCharles attempts to arrest 5 MPs, English Civil War breaks out, Edgehill, Income and Property Taxes introduced to England Montreal founded by French, Portugal cedes Gold Coast to Dutch, Abel Tasman discovers Tasmania and New Zealand, Dutch drive Spanish from TaiwanRembrandt's The Night WatchPascal invents adding machine
1643Christmas Island sighted and named by Captain William Mynors of the British East India Company, Confederation of New England formedEnglish Civil War continues, Battle of NewburyAbel Tasman discovers the island of Tonga and Fiji, Dutch slaughter Wappinger Indians at Nieuw AmsterdamMonteverdi's opera L'Incoronazione di Poppea is first performedEvangelista Torricelli devises the world's first barometer
1644Powhatan Indian uprising against the English at JamestownNew Model Army formed, Battle of Marston MoorMing Dynasty comes to end in China, replaced by Qing dynasty, Dutch settle on Mauritius, Tasman explores northern and western Australia
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Powhatan Uprising
Descartes' Les Principes de la Philosophie
1645 English Civil War comes to end after Battle of NasebyDutch occupy St. Helena, Capuchin Monks sail up Congo River, Ottomans and Venetians fight over Crete, Portuguese colonists rise against Dutch in BrazilJohn Milton's L'allegro and Il PenserosoPreliminary meeting of London Scientists as a precursor to the formation of the Royal Society in 1662
1646Bahamas occupiedCharles I surrenders himself to ScotsSpain and the Netherlands sign a temporary cease fireHenry Vaughan's PoemsAthanasius Kircher constructs first projection lantern
1647Yellow Fever in Barbados, English Parliamentary forces fight in IrelandThe Society of Friends (Quakers) begin in Leicestershire, Scots sell Charles I to English Parliament, Charles escapes from Isle of Wight and signs new secret treaty with ScotsTreaty of Ulm, Peter Stuyvesant is appointed Director of New Amsterdam by the Dutch West India CompanyFrancis Beaumont and John Fletcher's Comedies and TragediesJohann Hevel's Selenographia about the lunar surface
1648 King Charles and Scots defeated at Preston, Charles is brought to trialPeace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War, Naples returned to Spanish rule, The Dutch and the Spanish sign the Peace of M'nster ending Eight Year War, Portuguese defeat Dutch in the north of Brazil, Semyon Dezhnyov makes first recorded voyage through the Bering Strait between Asia and North America, Arabs besiege Portuguese in Muscat, France and the Netherlands agree to divide the Caribbean island of Saint Martin between themRembrandt's The Pilgrims at EmmausJohn Wilkins' Mathematical Magic
1649Royalist exiles arrive in Virginia in large numbers, Cromwell arrives in Ireland and sacks Drogheda and Wexford, Puritan exiles from Virginia settle in Maryland, Maryland passes Act of Toleration professing belief in Holy TrinityCharles I beheaded for Treason, England declared a Commonwealth, English replaces Latin as official language for all legal documents, First English Frigate, Constant Warwick, is constructed
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Cromwell's Soldiers
John Milton's The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, Descartes' Passions of the SoulIsbrand de Diemerbrock publishes study of plague called 'De Peste'
1650Catholic Landowners in Ireland exiled to Connaught, Dutch and English come to agreement about extent of territories in North AmericaMontrose returns to lead a Royalist uprising but is captured and executed, Charles II returns to Scotland, Parliamentarians defeat Scots at Dunbar and capture Edinburgh, Tea first drunk in England, Coldstream Guards raisedTreaty of Nuremberg between Holy Roman Emperor and Sweden confirms and amplifies Treaty of Westphalia and bringing a peace to Continental EuropeThomas Hobbes' Human NatureSir Richard Weston advocated cultivation of Turnips to help restore nutrients to soil in lieu of leaving them fallow
1651Navigation Act introduced to limit Dutch involvement in Imperial Trade and force all intra-colonial trade to be conducted in English and Imperial ships, Royalists defeated at Battle of Worcester, Charles II flees to France after travelling through countryside in disguiseTreaty between Tsar of Russia and CossacksThomas Hobbes' Leviathan, John Milton's The Life and Reign of King CharlesGiovanni Riccioli produces map of the moon with many of the modern names of the lunar features
1652First Anglo-Dutch War (until 1654), English defeat Dutch at Battle of Downs, Governor William Stone of Maryland is deprived of his office by CromwellEnglish Parliament passes Act of Pardon and Oblivion to reconcile RoyalistsDutch settle at Cape of Good Hope
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
First Anglo-Dutch War
Otto von Guericke invents the air pump
1653English defeat Dutch at Portland, North Foreland and TexelOliver Cromwell becomes Lord ProtectorChinese pirate Zheng Chenkong ravages Chinese coast with over 3,000 armed junks, Dutch settlers in Manhattan build a wall to protect themselves from English colonists (Wall Street)Rembrandt's Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, Peter Lely's Oliver CromwellJohann Schultes' book on surgical instruments and procedures is published posthumously
1654Treaty of Westminster ends Anglo-Dutch War with Dutch agreeing to recognise validity of Navigation ActTreaty of Commerce between England and Sweden, War between Poland and Russia, Portuguese finally drive Dutch out of Brazil Rembrandt's Portrait of Jan Six, John Milton's Defensio SecundiaBlaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat state the theory of probability, Otto von Guericke proves the existence of atmospheric pressure
1655Admiral Penn captures Jamaica starting new war with SpainCromwell dissolves Parliament, England divided into military districtsNorthern War begins between Sweden and PolandRembrandt's Woman Bathing in a Stream
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Capture of Jamaica, 1655
1656Engish capture Spanish treasure ships off CadizJew are readmiited to England by Oliver Cromwell, Poles defeat Swedes at Warsaw, Charles II raises Grenadier GuardsThe Dutch capture the city of Colombo in Sri Lanka, Dutch East Indies Shares plunge on Amsterdam stock exchangeRembrandt declared bankrupt due to falls on Amsterdam stock exchangeThe pendulum clock is invented by Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Wharton describes anatomy of glands
1657Admiral Blake leads an English naval force in destroying the Spanish West Indies fleet at Santa Cruz, The Flushing Remonstrance representing the the earliest declaration of religious tolerance in the American coloniesOliver Cromwell rejects offer of becoming King and remains Lord Protector but nominates his own House of Lords, Drinking Chocolate introduced to LondonSweden and Denmark go to warVelazquez' The Spinners
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Admiral Blake
1658 Oliver Cromwell dies and is replaced by his son Richard Cromwell, Pierre Radisson explores the western end of Lake Superior, English and French defeat Spanish force at Battle of the Dunes, English take DunkirkPieter de Hooch's Courtyard of a House in DelftJan Swammerdam describes red blood vessels for first time, Sir Thomas Browne advocates the use of cremation
1659 Richard Cromwell overthrown, Constitutional crisis between Parliament and ArmyPeace of the Pyrenees between France and Spain, Swedes driven out of Prussia, Pierre Radisson and Medart Chouart de Groselier reach MinnesotaVermeer's Girl With A FluteThomas Willis describes typhoid fever
1660Royal African Company founded, Navigation Acts ensure that tobacco, sugar, wool, indigo and apples from the American colonies are only exported to England and not to any rival powersDeclaration of Breda, Army invites Charles II back to the throne of EnglandPeace of Oliva ends Northern War between Austria, Poland, Sweden and Brandenburg, Peace of Copenhagen ends war between Denmark and Sweden, Dutch peasants begin to settle in South Africa (Boers) sparking off Dutch Khoisan WarSamuel Pepys begins his DiaryWater closets make first appearance in England
1661Charles II receives Tangier, Bombay and '300,000 as a Dowry present for marrying Catherine de BraganzaCavalier Parliament meetsPeace of Kardis between Russia and Sweden, In China the entire coastal population is ordered 10 miles inland in order to counter raids by Zheng ChenkongMoliere's L'Ecole des maris and Les Facheux, Peter Lely is made court painter to Charles IIRobert Boyle's The Sceptical Chymist Christian Huyghens invents manometer for ascertaining elastic force of gases
1662Connecticut granted a liberal charterChurch of England restored, Charles marries Catherine de Braganza, Charles sells Dunkirk to French
Dunkirk in 1662
William Rowley's The Birth of MerlinRoyal Society Formed, Boyle's Law
1663Charles grants Royal Charter to Royal African Company, The Carolinas and Rhode Island Turnpike tolls introduced to England for first time, Gold Guineas coinedTurks declare war on Holy Roman Empire, Colbert forms New France as a colony with Quebec as its capitalVermeer's Woman with a Water JugNicolaus Steno teaches that the heart is a muscle, Guericke constructs a frictional electrical machine
1664Marathas sack Surat, Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrenders New Amsterdam to an English naval squadron commanded by Colonel Richard Nicolls.The Admiral's Regiment is formed in England, later known as the Royal MarinesColbert founds French East India CompanyJohn Dryden's The Rival LadiesRobert Hooke discovers Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
1665Second Dutch War (until 1667), King Charles II of England issues a second charter for the Province of CarolinaPlague of LondonBattle of Mbwila where a Portuguese force defeat s and kills King Ant'nio I of KongoVermeer's Girl With A Pearl Earring Robert Hooke's Micrographia published in London, The first using of the term 'cell' for plant tissue, Isaac Newton discovers binomial theorem
1666English Privateers take Tobago, Puritans from Connecticut settle in Newark New Jersey, Dutch and French declare war on England, Four Days Battle where the Dutch fleet defeats English fleetFire of LondonExpulsion of the Portuguese from the Bengal port city of Chittagong by Mughal forces of Emperor Aurangzeb, French take Antigua, Montserrat and St. ChristopherVermeer paints The Art of PaintingSir Isaac Newton invents calculus, uses a prism to split sunlight into its component colors and measures the moon's orbit
1667The Treaty of Breda ends Second Anglo-Dutch War and recognizes Acadia as a French possessionSecret Treaty between Louis XIV and Charles IIRusso-Polish War ends, The War of Devolution beginsMilton's Paradise LostThe first human blood transfusion is administered by Dr Jean-Baptiste Denys, Robert Hooke demonstrates that the alteration of the blood in the lungs is essential for respiration
1668The English East India Company takes over Bombay, Government of Maine reverts to Massachusetts
Raid on the Medway
The Triple Alliance of 1668 is formed between England, Sweden and the United Provinces against France, Forces Louis to halt his war and sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Spain, Henry Morgan sacks Portobello, Sault Sainte Marie is first permanent European settlement between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, Spain forced to recognise PortugalJohn Dryden becomes Poet LaureateIsaac Newton builds the first Reflecting telescope, Leeuwenhoek describes red blood corpuscles, Robert Hooke's Discourse on Earthquakes
1669John Locke's constitution for Carolina is approved, South Carolina is settledCharles II offers Indulgence to Covenanters in ScotlandVenetians lose Crete to Turks, Last meeting of Hanseatic League, French begin trading in IndiaSamuel Pepys stops writing his Diary, Death of Rembrandt, First Stradivarius violin madeNicolaus begins modern study of Geology, Jan Swammerdam's History of Insects, Phosphorus prepared for first time by Henning Brand
1670 The Hudson's Bay Company is founded, England gains formal possession of Jamaica, Spanish frigates attack Charles Town, South Carolina
Hudson's Bay Company
Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover ending hostilities between their kingdoms, First French settlers arrive in Senegal, Henry Morgan captures Panama.John Milton's The History of BritainPhosphorus is discovered by Hennig Brand, Minute hand appears on clocks for first time, Gabriel Mouton proposes a decimal system for first time in France
1671Welsh buccaneer Henry Morgan captures Panama City - He is later tried for breaking Anglo-Spanish agreement but is reprieved by Charles II who later knighted him and made him governor of Jamaica Thomas Blood attempts to steal the Crown Jewels, English Crown resumes direct control of Customs The Ottoman Empire declares war on Poland, French Senegal Company foundedJohn Milton's Paradise Regained
Henry Morgan
1672Royal African Company granted Charter to exploit slave trade, Third Dutch War (until 1674), Customs duties on inter colony trade in Americas introduced, Tobacco from Americas begins arriving in Glasgow for processingRoyal Declaration of Indulgence suspends penal laws against Protestant nonconformists Treaty of Buchach between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jacques Marquette explores Missouri RiverGeorge Villiers' The RehearsalFlexible hose for fire-fighting invented y Jan van der Heyde
1673Dutch capture New YorkTest Acts - Those who refuse to receive the sacrament of the Church of England cannot vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend university or assemble for meetings, Royal Declaration of Indulgence withdrawnTrader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary-explorer Jacques Marquette explore the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes, Fort Frontenac founded, France begins expedition against Ceylon, Dutch flood Amsterdam to save it from French occupationMoliere dies
New Amsterdam
1674 Treaty of Westminster ends Third Anglo-Dutch War - A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, which renames it New York, in exchange for the British colonies of Berbice and Essequibo, Delaware is also returned to England, The East India Company arranges a trading treaty with the Maratha Empire Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illinois people (later becomes known as Chicago)Death of John MiltonJohn Mayow on the nature of combustion
1675King Philip's War between colonists of New England and Algonquian Indians (until 1678), English merchant Anthony de la Roche, blown off course having rounded Cape Horn eastabout, makes the first discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence, landing on South GeorgiaCharles II receives 500,000 crowns from Louis XIV which allows him to prorogue Parliament for 15 months Alliance between France and PolandJan Vermeer dies King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek begins to use a microscope for observing human tissues and liquids
1676Bacon's Rebellion begins in the Virginia ColonyGreenwich observatory founded to allow navigators to fix their longitudeThe Russo-Turkish War begins (until 1681), The French East India Company founds its principal Indian base at Pondicherry Edmond Halley observes the transit of Venus, Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers microorganisms, Thomas Sydenham's Observationes medicae
1677The Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians, Culpeper's Rebellion in The Carolinas The future Mary II of England marries William of Orange.French capture Dutch ports on River Senegal and at Goree, Catholic missionary Louis Hennepin discovers Niagara FallsElias Ashmole donates the collection that begins the Ashmolean Museum to Oxford UniversityAntoni van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa under the microscope.
1678About 1,200 Irish families sail from Barbados to Virginia Colony and The Carolinas, All French goods prohibited from sale in EnglandTitus Oates and the Popish Plot, Roman Catholics banned from English ParliamentFrench admiral d'Estrees runs his whole fleet aground in Cura'ao, The Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Franco-Dutch War, Russia and Sweden go to warBunyan's Pilgrim's Progress
1679New Hampshire separated from MassachusettsExclusion Crisis - helps lead to formation of Whig and Tory parties, Habeas Corpus amendment actFrench claim territory around Lake SuperiorJohn Dryden's Troilus and CressidaEdmund Halley's Catalogus stellarum australium
North America Map, 1700
Penny Post established in London by William DockwraFrench organise their American colonies from Quebec to mouth of Mississippi, First Brandenburgian expedition to West AfricaSir Peter Lely diesDodo declared extinct
1681Royal Charter issued for PennsylvaniaFirst use of written cheques, Founding of the Chelsea Hospital for wounded and discharged soldiersCanal de Midi connecting Bay of Biscay to Mediterranean is completedJohn Dryden's Absalom and AchitophelWren elected as president of the Royal Society, Edinburgh Royal College of Physicians founded
1682William Penn founds Philadelphia
Penn's Grid System Plan for Philadelphia
French Court moves to Versailles, La Salle reaches mouth of Mississippi and names region Louisiana in honour of the French kingJohn Dryden's The MedallPressure Cooker invented
1683Peace Treaty between William Penn and North American IndiansRye House Plot where Whigs conspired to kill Charles II, Wild Boars extinct in BritainVienna besieged by Ottomans, Chinese take Taiswan, Dutch traders admitted to Canton, Jean Colbert dies in France leading to a decline in the power of the French Navy, League of the Hague against France, First German immigrants arrive in North America
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Siege of Tangier
Isaac Newton explains mathematical theory on tides under gravitational attraction of sun, moon and earth
1684Court of Chancery annuls charter of Massachusetts, East India Company given permission to establish trading factory at CantonFirst attempts at street lighting in London, Thames freezes in one of the coldest winters in English history, Five shillings at pound import duty on teaHoly League of Linz formed to fight Turks, German explorer Engelbert Kampfer travels to Persian Gulf, Java and JapanSecond part of Bunyan's Pilgrim's ProgressGiovanni Cassini's Les Elements d'Astronomie
1685East India Company forced to relocate its Spice Islands trading operation to BenkulenCharles II dies and replaced by his Catholic brother James II, Duke of Monmouth's Rebellion fails, Titus Oates found guilty of perjuryFrench introduce Code Noir to attempt to establish more humane treatment of slaves, French Guinea Company founded to trade in slaves from West Africa, Edict of Nantes revoked leading to Huguenot exodus - many to England, Chinese ports declared open to foreign trade, First French settlers arrive in TexasEdmund Waller's Of Divine LoveDavid Abercromby's De Pulsis Variatione
1686Federation of New England formed by James II to remodel organisation of English colonies in North America, East India Company moves trading station from Hooghly to a more defendable site nearer the mouth of the Ganges - what will become CalcuttaRoman Catholics readmitted to serve in English armyLeague of Augsburg against Louis XIV, Russia declares war on Turkey, French annex Madagascar, First French settlers in Arkansas
Dutch Factory at Hooghly
Edmund Halley draws first Meteorological Map
1687Sir Hans Sloane begins botanical collection with visit to JamaicaJames II issues Declaration of Indulgence for liberty and conscienceParthenon damaged by Venetians liberating Athens from Turks, Brandenburg establishes colony at Arguin in Guinea, French explorer La Salle is killed by his own men on the Gulf of MexicoMatthew Prior's The Country Mouse and the City MouseIsaac Newton's Principia Mathematica published
1688Willoughby given to Dutch by William of OrangeJames II deposed by William of Orange and Mary, Lloyds of London is formed at coffee house in London Aphra Behn's Oroonoko about slavery in Surinam
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Halley's Meteorological Map
1689Siege of Londonderry, James II's Dominion of New England overthrown by Williamite supportersBill of Rights settles succession to the throne and grants rights to Parliament, Royal Dockyard at Plymouth Dock created by William IIILouis XIV declares war on England, The War of the League of Augsburg sees Dutch channel resources into land war against French and so gives English ships an opportunity to expand their activities, Indians destroy French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, Treaty of Nerchinsk ends conflict between Russia and China whereby Russia settlers agreed to withdraw from the Amur basin, Natal becomes a Dutch colonyJohn Locke's On Civil GovernmentDeath of Thomas Sydenham
1690Calcutta formally founded by East India official John CharnockBattle of Beachy Head sees French fleet defeat English fleet, Battle of Boyne confirms William of Orange as King over Charles II, Calico printing arrives in England for first time John Dryden's Amphitryon and John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingDenis Papin devises a pump with a piston raised by steam, Huyghens publishes his theory of the undulation of light
1691Massachusetts issued with new charter and absorbs Plymouth Colony within itIrish and Jacobite forces in Ireland surrender at Limerick - permission is granted to all Irish soldiers who wish to go into exile to FranceTurks defeated at SzcelankemanRacine's AthalieLeibniz' Protogaea about geology, Death of Robert Boyle
1692Earthquake in Jamaica destroys Port Royal, William and Mary take proprietorship of Pennsylvania from William Penn, Salem Witch trials in Massachusetts Glencoe Massacre, Destruction of French Navy at La Hogue by English ends invasion threatEdict of toleration for Christians in ChinaHenry Purcell's The Fairy Queen Leibniz invents calculating machine
1693Kingston in Jamaica founded, Carolina formally divided into North Carolina and South Carolina, Foundation of College of William and Mary in Virginia Battle of Cape St. Vincent sees Anglo-Dutch fleet defeated by French, Battle of Lagos sees French defeat English fleet off Portugal, William III instigates creation of National Debt
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Battle of La Hogue
William Congreve's The Old Bachelor John Locke's Thoughts Concerning Education
1694 Bank of England established, Death of Queen Mary, Salt tax doubled in England, English bombard Dieppe, Le Havre and Dunkirk, Greenwich Naval Hospital openedSevere famine in FranceWilliam Congreve's The Double DealerRudolf Camerarius' De sexu plantarum epistola
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Battle of Namur
Window tax introduced into England, William III captures NamurRussians fail to take Azov from TurksPurcell's The Indian Queen, Henry Purcell dies Guillaume Amontons invents pendant barometer, Nehemiah Grew isolates Magnesium Sulphate at Epsom (known as Epsom Salts)
1696Captain Shaddock takes Polynesian pomelo tree to Barbados a mutation of its seed will become known as grapefruit, English Navigation Acts forbid American colonies from exporting to Scotland or Ireland, Board of Trade and Plantations founded, Act strengthening enforcement of Navigation Acts, Act prohibiting Irish colonial trade, Fort William constructed in CalcuttaAssassination attempt on William III, Habeas Corpus suspendedRussia conquers Kamchatka, Russians capture Azov from TurksThomas Southern adapts Oroonoko for stageJohn Ray describes the aromatic herb peppermint for first time
1697Saint Domingue, Haiti awarded to France as part of Treaty of RyswickCivil List Act provides funds for Royal Household members, Whitehall Palace burns downTreaty of Ryswick sees France recognise William of Orange as King of England, China conquers western Mongolia, French attempt to colonise West Africa, Spanish destroy remains of Mayan civlisation in Yucatan, Gold discovered in Brazil triggering off Gold Rush, Battle of ZentaWilliam Dampier's Voyage Round the World
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Dampier's Voyage Round the World
1698New East India Company chartered to rival existing EIC, Royal African Company loses monopoly on Slave Trading, Captain Kidd begins career as pirate, Molyneux's Case of IrelandLondon Stock Exchange founded, Scottish Colony of Darien, New Caledonia is foundedArabs drive Portuguese from east coast of Africa
British Empire in the Seventeenth Century
Winstanley's Lighthouse
Thomas Savery invents Steam Engine to pump water from Cornish tin mines, Champagne invented, Henry Winstanley begins building Eddystone Lighthouse
1699William Dampier explores coast of Australia, Virginia moves its capital from Jamestown to Middle Plantation (Williamsburg)Parliament limits the size of the home army to 7,000 'native born' menTreaty of Karlowitz between Turks and Austrians, Russians, Polish and Venetians, Pierre Lemoyne founds French settlement in Lousiana at Fort MaurepasDeath of RacineEdward Lhuyd describes a sauropod tooth which is the first known scientific description of a dinosaur's remains

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by Stephen Luscombe